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BCHE  -  butyrylcholinesterase

Gallus gallus

 
 
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Disease relevance of BCHE

 

High impact information on BCHE

  • Close relationships between acetylcholinesterase (AcChoEase; acetylcholine acetylhydrolase, true cholinesterase, EC, 3.1.1.7) and butyrylcholinesterase (BtChoEase, acylcholine acylhydrolase, pseudocholinesterase, EC, 3.1.1.8) with cell proliferation were observed in the early chicken brain [3].
  • The amounts of BuchE increase progressively throughout embryonic development, independent of autonomic innervation, and in mature chick heart predominate over the much less abundant amounts of AchE [4].
  • The second approach examines the influence of vagotomy and sympathetic denervation of 8-day-old chick myocardium on expression of the molecular forms of AchE, BuchE, mAchR, and beta-adrenergic receptors [4].
  • The amplified segment contained 423 bp of BCHE sequence including the active site serine of the enzyme (amino acid 198) and a component of the anionic site, aspartate 70 [5].
  • Results showed that the BCHE gene was present in a single copy in the genome of all these vertebrates [5].
 

Biological context of BCHE

  • The pronounced effects of antisense 5'-BChE transfection of spheroids document a key role of BChE during the early reaggregation process of retinal cells, most likely by regulating their growth and differentiation [6].
  • The differently sized glycosylation parts of brain and serum BChE may indicate that they subserve different functions [7].
  • Quantitative development and molecular forms of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase during morphogenesis and synaptogenesis of chick brain and retina [8].
  • We have inserted 577 bp of the 5' upstream region plus 106 bp of the exon 1 of the rabbit BChE gene in reverse orientation under control of an SV40 early promoter derivative in an expression vector [6].
  • Butyrylcholinesterase antisense transfection increases apoptosis in differentiating retinal reaggregates of the chick embryo [9].
 

Anatomical context of BCHE

  • Butyrylcholinesterase activity was found in the mouse and quail but not the chick brain vasculature, and appeared around Days 17 (mouse) and 15 (quail). gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase activity was demonstrated histochemically in mouse but not in chick and quail brain capillaries, beginning at Day 15 [10].
  • Because cholinesterases can regulate neurite growth in vitro by a nonenzymatic mechanism, these data strongly support that both inactive and active forms of BChE may be involved in noncholinergic communication, possibly depending on particular glycosylation patterns [11].
  • Neither asymmetric AChE nor BuChE was detected in the motor neurons [12].
  • Butyrylcholinesterase was found in chick sciatic nerve in four main molecular forms--G1, G2, G4 and A12--distinguishable by thier sedimentation coefficients in sucrose gradients (4.2S, 6.4S, 11.3S and 19S, respectively) [13].
  • These findings suggest that some of the butyrylcholinesterase is located in the axonal mitochondria and/or axolemma [13].
 

Associations of BCHE with chemical compounds

  • The rate at which human BChE hydrolyzes cocaine is slow, with a kcat of 3.9 min(-1) and Km of 14 microM [14].
  • Brain acetylcholinesterase, acid phosphatase, and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphohydrolase and plasma butyrylcholinesterase activities in hens treated with a single dermal neurotoxic dose of S,S,S-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate [15].
  • Labeling of the 85- and 79-kDa bands was inhibited by butyrylcholine, suggesting that these proteins have BuChE activity [16].
  • Several side activities have been attributed to butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), including aryl acylamidase (AAA) activity, which is an amidase-like activity with unknown physiological function splitting the artificial substrate o-nitroacetanilide [17].
  • Taken together, these data support a hitherto unsuspected role of BChE in non-cholinergic cells, possibly in conjunction with GABA [18].
 

Physical interactions of BCHE

 

Regulatory relationships of BCHE

 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of BCHE

  • The amounts of AchE and BuchE molecular forms in avian heart are not measurably influenced by bilateral vagotomy for a duration of 4 days, unilateral vagotomy for a duration of 25 days, or sympathetic denervation [4].
  • Effects of electrical stimulation on molecular forms of butyrylcholinesterase in denervated fast and slow latissimus dorsi muscles of newly hatched chicken [21].
  • In PLD muscle, denervation performed at day 2 substantially reduced the rate of rapid decrease of BuChE specific activity which takes place during normal development, whereas in the case of ALD muscle little change was observed [21].
  • The distribution of liver esterases included both monomeric (G1) and G4 BChE and a large p-nitrophenylacetate (p-NPA) esterase activity that was separated into two main peaks by density gradient ultracentrifugation [22].
  • Modification of the technique by periodic redissociation of the neuronal aggregates during cell separation increased the purity of the neuronal cultures to greater than or equal to 97% as determined both by microscopic examination and by measurement of levels of butyrylcholinesterase, an enzyme present in the non-neuronal cells [23].

References

  1. Butyrylcholinesterase regulates laminar retinogenesis of the chick embryo in vitro. Willbold, E., Layer, P.G. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Studies on the delayed neuropathic and anticholinesterase potential of quinalphos (diethyl 2-quinoxalyl phosphorothionate) in hens. Jokanović, M. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Spatiotemporal relationship of embryonic cholinesterases with cell proliferation in chicken brain and eye. Layer, P.G., Sporns, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of acetylcholinesterase in avian heart. Studies on ontogeny and the influence of vagotomy. Jo, S.A., Higgins, D.M., Berman, H.A. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Use of the polymerase chain reaction for homology probing of butyrylcholinesterase from several vertebrates. Arpagaus, M., Chatonnet, A., Masson, P., Newton, M., Vaughan, T.A., Bartels, C.F., Nogueira, C.P., La Du, B.N., Lockridge, O. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Transfection of reaggregating embryonic chicken retinal cells with an antisense 5'-DNA butyrylcholinesterase expression vector inhibits proliferation and alters morphogenesis. Robitzki, A., Mack, A., Chatonnet, A., Layer, P.G. J. Neurochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Butyrylcholinesterase from chicken brain is smaller than that from serum: its purification, glycosylation, and membrane association. Treskatis, S., Ebert, C., Layer, P.G. J. Neurochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Quantitative development and molecular forms of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase during morphogenesis and synaptogenesis of chick brain and retina. Layer, P.G., Alber, R., Sporns, O. J. Neurochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Butyrylcholinesterase antisense transfection increases apoptosis in differentiating retinal reaggregates of the chick embryo. Robitzki, A., Mack, A., Hoppe, U., Chatonnet, A., Layer, P.G. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Differentiation-dependent expression of proteins in brain endothelium during development of the blood-brain barrier. Risau, W., Hallmann, R., Albrecht, U. Dev. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Novel inactive and distinctively glycosylated forms of butyrylcholinesterase from chicken serum. Weikert, T., Ebert, C., Rasched, I., Layer, P.G. J. Neurochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. A globular, not asymmetric, form of acetylcholinesterase is expressed in chick motor neurons: down-regulation toward maturity and after denervation. Tsim, K.W., Choi, R.C., Dong, T.T., Wan, D.C. J. Neurochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Slow axonal transport of the molecular forms of butyrylcholinesterase in a peripheral nerve. Couraud, J.Y., Di Giamberardino, L., Hässig, R. Neuroscience (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. An improved cocaine hydrolase: the A328Y mutant of human butyrylcholinesterase is 4-fold more efficient. Xie, W., Altamirano, C.V., Bartels, C.F., Speirs, R.J., Cashman, J.R., Lockridge, O. Mol. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Brain acetylcholinesterase, acid phosphatase, and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphohydrolase and plasma butyrylcholinesterase activities in hens treated with a single dermal neurotoxic dose of S,S,S-tri-n-butyl phosphorotrithioate. Abou-Donia, M.B., Abdo, K.M., Timmons, P.R., Proctor, J.E. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of serine esterases in tissue homogenates. Keshavarz-Shokri, A., Suntornwat, O., Kitos, P.A. Anal. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Aryl acylamidase activity exhibited by butyrylcholinesterase is higher in chick than in horse, but much lower than in fetal calf serum. Weitnauer, E., Robitzki, A., Layer, P.G. Neurosci. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Butyrylcholinesterase-positive cells of the developing chicken retina that are non-cholinergic and GABA-positive. Reiss, Y., Layer, P.G., Kröger, S. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Butyrylcholinesterase is complexed with transferrin in chicken serum. Weitnauer, E., Ebert, C., Hucho, F., Robitzki, A., Weise, C., Layer, P.G. J. Protein Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Chicken retinospheroids as developmental and pharmacological in vitro models: acetylcholinesterase is regulated by its own and by butyrylcholinesterase activity. Layer, P.G., Weikert, T., Willbold, E. Cell Tissue Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of electrical stimulation on molecular forms of butyrylcholinesterase in denervated fast and slow latissimus dorsi muscles of newly hatched chicken. Khaskiye, A., Sine, J.P., Colas, B., Renaud, D. J. Neurochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Multiple molecular forms and lectin interactions of organophosphate-sensitive plasma and liver esterases during development of the chick. Smucker, S.J., Wilson, B.W. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Preparation and partial characterization of highly purified primary cultures of neurons and non-neuronal (glial) cells from embryonic chick cerebral hemispheres and several other regions of the nervous system. Hanson, G.R., Iversen, P.L., Partlow, L.M. Brain Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
 
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