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Gene Review

PROS1  -  protein S (alpha)

Sus scrofa

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Disease relevance of PROS


High impact information on PROS

  • The enterotropism of TGEV is connected with the sialic acid binding activity of the viral surface protein S. Here we show that, among porcine intestinal brush border membrane proteins, TGEV recognizes a mucin-type glycoprotein designated MGP in a sialic acid-dependent fashion [5].
  • These results indicate that the interaction of the surface protein S with sialoglycoconjugates is maintained after solubilization of this viral glycoprotein by detergent treatment [6].
  • This rate is not accelerated by protein S, phospholipid, and calcium, or heparin [7].
  • The increase in Protein C, total Protein S, and 6-keto-PGF1a (favoring antithrombosis), and decrease in endothelin-1 and TxB2 levels (favoring vasodilatation), following NPC 15669 may explain the reduction in infarct size previously reported with this agent [8].
  • Previous studies have shown that the TGEV external protein M plays a major role in IFN-alpha induction by a non-infectious virus, whereas protein S is not involved [9].

Biological context of PROS

  • Mg-deficient swine showed significant increases in ADP-induced (33.3 per cent and 59.6 per cent) and collagen-induced (36.6 per cent) platelet aggregation, and decreased plasma antithrombin-III (17.7 per cent) and protein S (14.4 per cent) when compared to baseline [10].

Other interactions of PROS


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PROS

  • Protein S was higher at the end of occlusion and through the entire reperfusion in the NPC 15669-treated animals when compared with the controls [11].


  1. A novel sorting signal for intracellular localization is present in the S protein of a porcine coronavirus but absent from severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus. Schwegmann-Wessels, C., Al-Falah, M., Escors, D., Wang, Z., Zimmer, G., Deng, H., Enjuanes, L., Naim, H.Y., Herrler, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of the sialic acid binding activity of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus by analysis of haemagglutination-deficient mutants. Krempl, C., Ballesteros, M.L., Zimmer, G., Enjuanes, L., Klenk, H.D., Herrler, G. J. Gen. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Permissible peptide insertions surrounding the signal peptide-mature protein junction of the ClpG prepilin: CS31A fimbriae of Escherichia coli as carriers of foreign sequences. Der Vartanian, M., Méchin, M.C., Jaffeux, B., Bertin, Y., Félix, I., Gaillard-Martinie, B. Gene (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Mild myocardial stunning affects platelet aggregation and certain hemostatic factors in swine. Serebruany, V.L., Yurovsky, V.V., Gurbel, P.A. Clin. Appl. Thromb. Hemost. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Binding of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus to brush border membrane sialoglycoproteins. Schwegmann-Wessels, C., Zimmer, G., Schröder, B., Breves, G., Herrler, G. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Sialic acid binding activity of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus affects sedimentation behavior of virions and solubilized glycoproteins. Krempl, C., Herrler, G. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Platelet plasminogen activator inhibitor: purification and characterization of interaction with plasminogen activators and activated protein C. Fay, W.P., Owen, W.G. Biochemistry (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of a novel Mac-1 inhibitor, NPC 15669, on hemostatic parameters during preconditioned myocardial infarction. Serebruany, V.L., Yurovsky, V.V., Gurbel, P.A. Life Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Reconstituted coronavirus TGEV virosomes lose the virus ability to induce porcine interferon-alpha production. Riffault, S., Grosclaude, J., Vayssier, M., Laude, H., Charley, B. Vet. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Changes in the haemostatic profile during magnesium deficiency in swine. Serebruany, V.L., Herzog, W.R., Edenbaum, L.R., Shustov, A.R., Gurbel, P.A. Magnesium research : official organ of the International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Serial changes of natural antithrombotics during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in swine. Effects of magnesium, diltiazem, and a novel Mac-1 inhibitor. Serebruany, V.L., Herzog, W.R., Gurbel, P.A. Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis (1996) [Pubmed]
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