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Gene Review

GHR  -  growth hormone receptor

Canis lupus familiaris

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Disease relevance of GHR

  • The absence of alternative GHR transcripts in mammary carcinomas, and thus putative inhibitors of GH-induced signal transduction, may contribute to enhanced sensitivity of malignant tumors to GH [1].
  • In the first protocol, the effects of alpha-hANP on an open-loop gain (G(AP)) of the overall baroreflex system and a gain (GHR) of the baroreflex heart rate control system during quick mild hemorrhage and blood infusion were studied [2].
  • Therefore, we examined the mRNA abundance of growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-1 and -2 in duodenal and colonic biopsies of dogs with CE such as food-responsive diarrhoea (FRD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) before and after treatment as compared with each other and healthy dogs [3].

High impact information on GHR

  • Seminested RT-PCR (using primers annealing in exons 4-5, exon 6, and exon 9) generated, next to the primary product, four different products in mammary tissues and the canine mammary tumor cell line CMT-U335, which seemed to be alternative GHR transcripts [1].
  • First, using immunohistochemistry, GHR was found to be present throughout normal and tumorous mammary tissues, being localized in epithelial and myoepithelial/spindle cell components and in the activated fibroblasts of desmoplastic tumor stroma [1].
  • Upregulation of GHR expression in distraction osteogenesis may enhance sensitivity to endogenous systemic GH and thus promote consolidation of the regenerated bone [4].
  • In conclusion, mRNA levels of GHR, IGF-1 and IGF-2 in the gastrointestinal tract were increased during CE when compared with gastrointestinally healthy dogs [3].
  • In duodenum, GHR mRNA levels were higher in all groups than in C (P < 0.001) [3].

Biological context of GHR

  • The aim of the present study was to determine the expression of growth hormone (GH), growth hormone receptor (GHR), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) in distraction-induced bone regeneration [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GHR

  • Northern blot analysis revealed a major GHR transcript of approximately 4.2 kb [1].
  • Intestinal samples were homogenized, total RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed and analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction to measure mRNA levels of GHR, IGF-1 and IGF-2 [3].


  1. Expression and molecular characterization of the growth hormone receptor in canine mammary tissue and mammary tumors. van Garderen, E., van der Poel, H.J., Swennenhuis, J.F., Wissink, E.H., Rutteman, G.R., Hellmén, E., Mol, J.A., Schalken, J.A. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. The effects of synthetic alpha-human atrial natriuretic peptide (alpha-hANP) on the overall baroreflex system in anesthetized mongrel dogs. Tateishi, J., Mitani, Y., Iwasaki, T. Clin. Exp. Hypertens. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Abundance of mRNA of growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factors-1 and -2 in duodenal and colonic biopsies of dogs with chronic enteropathies*. Spichiger, A.C., Allenspach, K., Ontsouka, E., Gaschen, F., Morel, C., Blum, J.W., Sauter, S.N. Journal of veterinary medicine. A, Physiology, pathology, clinical medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of osteotropic growth factors and growth hormone receptor in a canine distraction osteogenesis model. Theyse, L.F., Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis, M.A., van Doorn, J., Terlou, M., Mol, J.A., Voorhout, G., Hazewinkel, H.A. J. Bone Miner. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
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