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Gene Review

Melt  -  melittin

Apis mellifera

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Disease relevance of Melt

  • Two species of full-length cDNA are synthesized in high yield by melittin-treated avian retrovirus particles [1].
  • These results were compared to the effects of melittin, which has been reported to induce enzyme release and hemolysis [2].
  • Experiments with the bee venom protein melittin, with the alpha-toxin of Staphylococcus aureus and with activated complement, show that the lesions produced by these agents, too, are sensitive to extracellular Ca2+ and to 'anti-Ca2+' drugs [3].
  • Prior to recombination, each gene was cloned into the baculovirus transfer vector pVT-Bac, which permits insertion of the gene minus its natural signal peptide in frame with the signal peptide of honeybee melittin [4].
  • A number of compounds would be able to inhibit HIV-1 gene expression at the transcription level: the flavonoid chrysin (through inhibition of casein kinase II, the antibacter ial peptides melittin (from bee venom) and cecropin, and EM2487, a novel substance produced by Streptomyces [5].

High impact information on Melt

  • We describe here the primary structures of cecropins A and B. We also show that cecropin A is specific for bacteria in contrast to melittin, the main lytic component in bee venom which lyses both bacteria and eukaryotic cells [6].
  • Succinyl bee venom melittin is a leukocyte chemotactic factor [7].
  • The NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of the amoeba peptide was determined by protein sequencing and revealed a structural similarity to melittin, the membranolytic peptide of bee venom [8].
  • Twenty micrograms of bee venom melittin, which activates endogenous phospholipase A2, administered intracisternally into rabbits also produced signs of level 3 (our grading system) coma for several hours [9].
  • Translation of melittin messenger RNA from queen bee venom glands in a cell-free system from wheat germ yielded prepromelittin [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Melt


Biological context of Melt


Anatomical context of Melt


Associations of Melt with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Melt


Regulatory relationships of Melt

  • These studies do not support the suggestion that snake venom cardiotoxins and melittin selectively activate endogenous phospholipase A2 activity [24].
  • The melittin-induced Ca(2+) influx was unchanged by modulation of protein kinase-C activity with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and GF 109203X, or inhibition of phospholipase A(2) with AACOCF(3) and aristolochic acid; but was substantially inhibited by blocking L-type Ca(2+) channels [25].

Other interactions of Melt


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Melt


  1. Two species of full-length cDNA are synthesized in high yield by melittin-treated avian retrovirus particles. Boone, L.R., Skalka, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. A phospholipase A2-activating protein (PLAP) stimulates human neutrophil aggregation and release of lysosomal enzymes, superoxide, and eicosanoids. Bomalaski, J.S., Baker, D.G., Brophy, L., Resurreccion, N.V., Spilberg, I., Muniain, M., Clark, M.A. J. Immunol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Cell damage by viruses, toxins and complement: common features of pore-formation and its inhibition by Ca2+. Pasternak, C.A., Alder, G.M., Bashford, C.L., Buckley, C.D., Micklem, K.J., Patel, K. Biochem. Soc. Symp. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. High-level expression and purification of secreted forms of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein gD synthesized by baculovirus-infected insect cells. Sisk, W.P., Bradley, J.D., Leipold, R.J., Stoltzfus, A.M., Ponce de Leon, M., Hilf, M., Peng, C., Cohen, G.H., Eisenberg, R.J. J. Virol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Current lead natural products for the chemotherapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. De Clercq, E. Medicinal research reviews. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Sequence and specificity of two antibacterial proteins involved in insect immunity. Steiner, H., Hultmark, D., Engström, A., Bennich, H., Boman, H.G. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Succinyl bee venom melittin is a leukocyte chemotactic factor. Wilkinson, P.C. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Pore-forming peptide of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica. Leippe, M., Ebel, S., Schoenberger, O.L., Horstmann, R.D., Müller-Eberhard, H.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Development of encephalopathic features similar to Reye syndrome in rabbits. Kang, E.S., Olson, G., Jabbour, J.T., Solomon, S.S., Heimberg, M., Sabesin, S., Griffith, J.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Amino acid sequence of honeybee prepromelittin synthesized in vitro. Suchanek, G., Kreil, G., Hermodson, M.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Phosphorylation of vesicular stomatitis virus proteins as a possible contributing factor in virion uncoating. Witt, D.J., Naeve, C.W., Summers, D.F. J. Gen. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of bee venom peptidergic components on rat pain-related behaviors and inflammation. Chen, Y.N., Li, K.C., Li, Z., Shang, G.W., Liu, D.N., Lu, Z.M., Zhang, J.W., Ji, Y.H., Gao, G.D., Chen, J. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. A comparison of hyperalgesia and neurogenic inflammation induced by melittin and capsaicin in humans. Sumikura, H., Andersen, O.K., Drewes, A.M., Arendt-Nielsen, L. Neurosci. Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Influence of the lipid composition on the kinetics of concerted insertion and folding of melittin in bilayers. Constantinescu, I., Lafleur, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Antiarthritic effect of bee venom: inhibition of inflammation mediator generation by suppression of NF-kappaB through interaction with the p50 subunit. Park, H.J., Lee, S.H., Son, D.J., Oh, K.W., Kim, K.H., Song, H.S., Kim, G.J., Oh, G.T., Yoon, d.o. .Y., Hong, J.T. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Melittin-specific monoclonal and polyclonal IgE and IgG1 antibodies from mice. King, T.P., Kochoumian, L., Joslyn, A. J. Immunol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Membrane interactions of amphiphilic polypeptides mastoparan, melittin, polymyxin B, and cardiotoxin. Differential inhibition of protein kinase C, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and synaptosomal membrane Na,K-ATPase, and Na+ pump and differentiation of HL60 cells. Raynor, R.L., Zheng, B., Kuo, J.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Antibody responses to bee melittin (Api m 4) and hornet antigen 5 (Dol m 5) in mice treated with the dominant T-cell epitope peptides. King, T.P., Lu, G., Agosto, H. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Influence of lipid chain unsaturation on membrane-bound melittin: a fluorescence approach. Raghuraman, H., Chattopadhyay, A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of melittin on endothelium-dependent relaxation and cyclic GMP levels in rat aorta. Rapoport, R.M., Ashraf, M., Murad, F. Circ. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Bombolitins, a new class of mast cell degranulating peptides from the venom of the bumblebee Megabombus pennsylvanicus. Argiolas, A., Pisano, J.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Structure-immunogenicity relationship of melittin, its transposed analogues, and D-melittin. King, T.P., Wade, D., Coscia, M.R., Mitchell, S., Kochoumian, L., Merrifield, B. J. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Selective solubilization by melittin of glycophorin A and acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocyte ghosts. Maulet, Y., Brodbeck, U., Fulpius, B. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Snake venom cardiotoxins and bee venom melittin activate phospholipase C activity in primary cultures of skeletal muscle. Fletcher, J.E., Jiang, M.S., Gong, Q.H., Smith, L.A. Biochem. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Phospholipase A(2)-independent Ca(2+) entry and subsequent apoptosis induced by melittin in human MG63 osteosarcoma cells. Chu, S.T., Cheng, H.H., Huang, C.J., Chang, H.C., Chi, C.C., Su, H.H., Hsu, S.S., Wang, J.L., Chen, I.S., Liu, S.I., Lu, Y.C., Huang, J.K., Ho, C.M., Jan, C.R. Life Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  26. The structures of some peptides from bee venom. Gauldie, J., Hanson, J.M., Shipolini, R.A., Vernon, C.A. Eur. J. Biochem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  27. Further studies on the structural requirements for polypeptide-mediated histamine release from rat mast cells. Jasani, B., Kreil, G., Mackler, B.F., Stanworth, D.R. Biochem. J. (1979) [Pubmed]
  28. Crossed radioimmunoelectrophoretic studies of bee venom allergens. Aukrust, L., Einarsson, R., Ohman, S., Johansson, S.G. Allergy (1982) [Pubmed]
  29. Melittin cardiotoxicity in cultured mouse cardiac myocytes and its correlation with calcium overload. Okamoto, T., Isoda, H., Kubota, N., Takahata, K., Takahashi, T., Kishi, T., Nakamura, T.Y., Muromachi, Y., Matsui, Y., Goshima, K. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Melittin forms crystals which are suitable for high resolution X-ray structural analysis and which reveal a molecular 2-fold axis of symmetry. Anderson, D., Terwilliger, T.C., Wickner, W., Eisenberg, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  31. Cooperative effects in the interaction between melittin and phosphatidylcholine model membranes. Studies by temperature scanning densitometry. Posch, M., Rakusch, U., Mollay, C., Laggner, P. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  32. Group additive contributions to the alcohol-induced alpha-helix formation of melittin: implication for the mechanism of the alcohol effects on proteins. Hirota, N., Mizuno, K., Goto, Y. J. Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Biochemical variability of venoms from individual European and Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera). Schumacher, M.J., Schmidt, J.O., Egen, N.B., Dillon, K.A. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Melittin: an allergen of honeybee venom. Paull, B.R., Yunginger, J.W., Gleich, G.J. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1977) [Pubmed]
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