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Gene Review

RpII15  -  RNA polymerase II 15kD subunit

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG3284, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II 15.1 kDa polypeptide, DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB9, Dmel\CG3284, H5, ...
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Disease relevance of RpII15


High impact information on RpII15

  • The transition from abortive into productive elongation is proposed to be controlled by a positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) through phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II [2].
  • We show that Pcf11 is directly involved in termination in Drosophila. dPcf11 is concentrated at the 3' end of the hsp70 gene in cells, and depletion of dPcf11 with RNAi causes Pol II to readthrough the normal region of termination. dPcf11 also localizes to most transcribed loci on polytene chromosomes [3].
  • Unlike the TAFs and Pol II, the interaction between Mediator and HSF on chromosomal loci is direct and mechanistically separable from the preinitiation complex assembly step [4].
  • Here, we show that upon heat shock the Pol II-free form of Mediator is rapidly recruited to HSF binding sites [4].
  • These data suggest that the chromatin remodeling activity of the BRM complex plays a general role in facilitating transcription by RNA polymerase II [5].

Biological context of RpII15

  • An 800-bp 5' enhancer was identified that recapitulates this complex pattern when attached to a RNA polymerase II core promoter fused to a lacZ-reporter gene [6].
  • In this model, Ess1 binds and isomerizes the CTD of RNA polymerase II, thus altering its interaction with proteins required for transcription of essential cell cycle genes [7].
  • The multiprotein Mediator complex is a coactivator required for transcriptional activation of RNA polymerase II transcribed genes by DNA binding transcription factors [9].
  • The kinetics of heat inactivation of RNA polymerase II in crude extracts could be reproducibly measured [10].

Anatomical context of RpII15

  • In preparations of polytene chromosomes from salivary gland nuclei, SARFH antibodies recognize their target associated with the majority of active transcription units, revealed by colocalization with the phosphorylated form of RNA Pol II [11].

Associations of RpII15 with chemical compounds

  • The ability of P-TEFb to phosphorylate the carboxyl-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II was inhibited by flavopiridol with a K(i) of 3 nm [12].
  • The two forms of RNA polymerase II differ in ammonium sulfate optima [13].
  • Thioether 2 and sulfoxide 3-R exert 50% inhibition of RNA polymerase II (or B) from Drosophila melanogaster in 10(-6) M solution whereas Ki of 3-S is about five times higher [14].

Other interactions of RpII15

  • The PSE is essential for transcription of both RNA polymerase II-transcribed and RNA polymerase III-transcribed snRNA genes and is recognized in DROSOPHILA: by a multi-subunit protein factor termed DM:PBP [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RpII15

  • Using the polymerase chain reaction the coding region of RPII15 was isolated from genomic DNA of adult flies [16].
  • The chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that HDI treatments induced the hyperacetylation of histone H3 at the promoter and the transcribing regions of hsp70 gene, increased the accessibility of heat-shock factor to target heat-shock element, and promoted the RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription [17].
  • As judged by gel filtration chromatography, female adult extracts have forms of RNA polymerase II that differ in molecular weight and template preference [13].


  1. Tackling Tat. Karn, J. J. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of multiple cyclin subunits of human P-TEFb. Peng, J., Zhu, Y., Milton, J.T., Price, D.H. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Pcf11 is a termination factor in Drosophila that dismantles the elongation complex by bridging the CTD of RNA polymerase II to the nascent transcript. Zhang, Z., Gilmour, D.S. Mol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Mediator, not holoenzyme, is directly recruited to the heat shock promoter by HSF upon heat shock. Park, J.M., Werner, J., Kim, J.M., Lis, J.T., Kim, Y.J. Mol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. The Drosophila BRM complex facilitates global transcription by RNA polymerase II. Armstrong, J.A., Papoulas, O., Daubresse, G., Sperling, A.S., Lis, J.T., Scott, M.P., Tamkun, J.W. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Spatial regulation of microRNA gene expression in the Drosophila embryo. Biemar, F., Zinzen, R., Ronshaugen, M., Sementchenko, V., Manak, J.R., Levine, M.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. The Ess1 prolyl isomerase is linked to chromatin remodeling complexes and the general transcription machinery. Wu, X., Wilcox, C.B., Devasahayam, G., Hackett, R.L., Arévalo-Rodríguez, M., Cardenas, M.E., Heitman, J., Hanes, S.D. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Rtt109 Is Required for Proper H3K56 Acetylation: A CHROMATIN MARK ASSOCIATED WITH THE ELONGATING RNA POLYMERASE II. Schneider, J., Bajwa, P., Johnson, F.C., Bhaumik, S.R., Shilatifard, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. A mammalian homolog of Drosophila melanogaster transcriptional coactivator intersex is a subunit of the mammalian Mediator complex. Sato, S., Tomomori-Sato, C., Banks, C.A., Parmely, T.J., Sorokina, I., Brower, C.S., Conaway, R.C., Conaway, J.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. A method for assaying DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II in crude extracts of Drosophila melanogaster adults: its use in identifying mutants with an altered RNA polymerase II. Nishiura, J.T. Biochem. Genet. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Association of SARFH (sarcoma-associated RNA-binding fly homolog) with regions of chromatin transcribed by RNA polymerase II. Immanuel, D., Zinszner, H., Ron, D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Flavopiridol inhibits P-TEFb and blocks HIV-1 replication. Chao, S.H., Fujinaga, K., Marion, J.E., Taube, R., Sausville, E.A., Senderowicz, A.M., Peterlin, B.M., Price, D.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from Drosophila melanogaster adults: isolation and partial characterization. Nishiura, J.T. Biochem. Genet. (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. Analogs of amanin. Synthesis of Ile3-amaninamide and its diastereoisomeric (S)-sulfoxide. Zanotti, G., Birr, C., Wieland, T. Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Similarities and differences in the conformation of protein-DNA complexes at the U1 and U6 snRNA gene promoters. Hardin, S.B., Ortler, C.J., McNamara-Schroeder, K.J., Stumph, W.E. Nucleic Acids Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. RPII15 codes for the M(r) 15,000 subunit 9 of Drosophila melanogaster RNA polymerase II. Liu, Z., Kontermann, R.E., Schulze, R.A., Petersen, G., Bautz, E.K. FEBS Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on transcriptional regulation of the hsp70 gene in Drosophila. Zhao, Y.M., Chen, X., Sun, H., Yuan, Z.G., Ren, G.L., Li, X.X., Lu, J., Huang, B.Q. Cell Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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