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Gene Review

IVD  -  isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of IVD

  • The birth weight of the IVP calves was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that of the IVD (bull A: 31.0+/-0.4 kg versus 27.2+/-0.4 kg and bull B: 29.9+/-0.6 kg versus 26.6+/-0.2 kg) [1].

High impact information on IVD

  • 4. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using primer pairs designed against specific sequences in four distinct rat PDE IV subtype cDNA clones (PDE IVA-D), showed only mRNA for PDE IVD in guinea-pig eosinophils [2].
  • PDE IVD was also the predominant subtype expressed in pig aortic smooth muscle cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[2]
  • Lactating cows in three herds were synchronized for a first estrus and AI by treatment with an IVD for 8d, starting on Day 0, cloprostenol (0.5mgim) at device removal and EB at device insertion (2.0mg im) and 24h after removal (1.0mgim) [3].
  • We concluded that reproductive performance in resynchronized dairy cows but not heifers was greater following resynchronization of estrous cycles after AI with an IVD for 7 compared to 8d when EB was injected at the start of treatment and 24h after device removal [3].
  • One aim of this study was to compare the reproductive performance of cows and heifers when resynchronizing returns to estrus for a second insemination by treating with an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (IVD) for 7 or 8d when estradiol benzoate (EB) was administered at the start of treatment and again 24h after device removal [3].

Biological context of IVD

  • However, for bull B, there were no differences in gestation length between the IVP and IVD calves (285.9+/-0.7 days versus 286.2+/-0.3 days) [1].
  • Reproductive performance in cows following synchronization of estrus with intravaginal progesterone releasing devices (IVD) has varied with the length of treatment, cyclic status and prolonged return to estrus intervals in some cows following first AI [4].
  • Both the IVD and IVP embryos were transferred non-surgically to Holstein recipients on day 7+/-1 of estrous cycle [1].
  • High levels of haploid metaphases II (90.6, 86.9 and 94.4 %) among the 3 groups of follicular sizes indicated successful meiotic resumption during in vitro maturation and suggested that cytoplasmic maturation may be responsible for low developmental rate after IVM, IVF and in vitro development (IVD) [5].

Anatomical context of IVD

  • Two Japanese Black bulls breed at our experimental station were used as a semen source for production of IVP and IVD embryos [1].
  • Although individual culture of the oocytes negatively affected the percentage of embryos produced, group culture of oocytes from animals that were superovulated and left in the postmortem ovaries for 4 h resulted in exceptionally high rates of embryos after 5 d of IVD [6].
  • Spermatozoa from one Japanese Black bull were used for both IVP and IVD [7].

Associations of IVD with chemical compounds

  • In this study, we examined four kinds of acyl-CoA dehydrogenases [short-chain acyl-CoA (SCAD), medium-chain acyl-CoA (MCAD), long-chain acyl-CoA (LCAD), and isovaleryl-CoA (IVD) dehydrogenases] from bovine liver [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IVD


  1. Birth weight and birth rate of heavy calves conceived by transfer of in vitro or in vivo produced bovine embryos. Numabe, T., Oikawa, T., Kikuchi, T., Horiuchi, T. Anim. Reprod. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Suppression of eosinophil function by RP 73401, a potent and selective inhibitor of cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase: comparison with rolipram. Souness, J.E., Maslen, C., Webber, S., Foster, M., Raeburn, D., Palfreyman, M.N., Ashton, M.J., Karlsson, J.A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows and heifers resynchronized for a second insemination with an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device for 7 or 8d with estradiol benzoate injected at the time of device insertion and 24h after removal. Cavalieri, J., Hepworth, G., Smart, V.M., Ryan, M., Macmillan, K.L. Theriogenology (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Comparison of two estrus synchronization and resynchronization treatments in lactating dairy cows. Cavalieri, J., Hepworth, G., Fitzpatrick, L.A. Theriogenology (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Cytogenetic study of bovine oocytes matured in vitro. Ectors, F.J., Koulischer, L., Jamar, M., Herens, C., Verloes, A., Remy, B., Beckers, J.F. Theriogenology (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. In vitro production of bovine embryos: Developmental competence is acquired before maturation. Blondin, P., Coenen, K., Guilbault, L.A., Sirard, M.A. Theriogenology (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Birth weight and gestation length of Japanese black calves following transfer of embryos produced in vitro with or without co-culture. Numabe, T., Oikawa, T., Kikuchi, T., Horiuchi, T. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Substrate activating mechanism of short-chain acyl-CoA, medium-chain acyl-CoA, long-chain acyl-CoA, and isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenases from bovine liver: a resonance Raman study on the 3-ketoacyl-CoA complexes. Hazekawa, I., Nishina, Y., Sato, K., Shichiri, M., Shiga, K. J. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Production efficiency of Japanese black calves by transfer of bovine embryos produced in vitro. Numabe, T., Oikawa, T., Kikuchi, T., Horiuchi, T. Theriogenology (2000) [Pubmed]
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