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Gene Review

NPY  -  neuropeptide Y

Macaca mulatta

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Disease relevance of NPY

  • RESULTS: NPY-like immunoreactive (LI) nerve terminals surrounded 80% of ciliary ganglion cells, but ciliary ganglion cell somata were unstained [1].

Psychiatry related information on NPY


High impact information on NPY


Biological context of NPY


Anatomical context of NPY

  • Numerous nerve fibers near the meibomian gland acini were immunoreactive for NPY and VIP, but nerve fibers containing TH, CGRP, and SP were more sparse in the meibomian glands [12].
  • METHODS: Cryostat tissue sections of fixed rhesus monkey ciliary, pterygopalatine, superior cervical, and trigeminal ganglia were incubated with antisera to neuropeptide Y (NPY), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) [1].
  • No NPY-containing neurons were found in layer IV of any area, except layers IVA and B of the visual cortex [13].
  • The regional differences in the distribution of NPY-like immunoreactivity in the neocortex may reflect innate characteristics of local neuronal circuits serving specialized functions [2].
  • The possibility of additional neuronal types containing NPY is suggested by labeled densely spinous dendrites in area 6 and recurving axons and axonal loops in the supragranular layers in areas 7 and 9 [13].

Associations of NPY with chemical compounds

  • Blood glucose levels were unaffected by intracerebroventricular administration of NPY, but animals receiving either 20 or 50 microg displayed increased plasma levels of insulin and cortisol at few time points [7].
  • The ability of estrogen feedback to alter the response to NPY treatment supports a physiological role for NPY in controlling reproduction in the primate [14].
  • NPY pulse frequency also increased significantly (P < 0.05) 4-8 h after progesterone treatment, whereas mean release and pulse amplitude did not change in response to progesterone [15].
  • NPY and LHRH concentrations in aliquots of the same perfusate sample from the S-ME and circulating LH levels were concurrently measured in 8 monkeys sedated with Saffan [16].
  • The presence of catecholamines and NPY in graft tissue was confirmed by tyrosine-hydroxylase-positive, dopamine beta-hydroxylase-positive, and NPY-positive cells [11].

Regulatory relationships of NPY


Other interactions of NPY


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NPY


  1. Neuropeptide Y-like immunoreactivity localizes to preganglionic axon terminals in the rhesus monkey ciliary ganglion. Grimes, P.A., Koeberlein, B., Tigges, M., Stone, R.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Distribution of neuropeptide Y-containing perikarya and axons in various neocortical areas in the macaque monkey. Kuljis, R.O., Rakic, P. J. Comp. Neurol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Neurobiological bases underlying the control of the onset of puberty in the rhesus monkey: a representative higher primate. Plant, T.M. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Neuropeptide Y: A hypothalamic brake restraining the onset of puberty in primates. El Majdoubi, M., Sahu, A., Ramaswamy, S., Plant, T.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression and regulation of the neuropeptide Y Y2 receptor in sensory and autonomic ganglia. Zhang, X., Shi, T., Holmberg, K., Landry, M., Huang, W., Xiao, H., Ju, G., Hökfelt, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Galanin-like peptide as a possible link between metabolism and reproduction in the macaque. Cunningham, M.J., Shahab, M., Grove, K.L., Scarlett, J.M., Plant, T.M., Cameron, J.L., Smith, M.S., Clifton, D.K., Steiner, R.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Activation of central neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors potently stimulates food intake in male rhesus monkeys. Larsen, P.J., Tang-Christensen, M., Stidsen, C.E., Madsen, K., Smith, M.S., Cameron, J.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Infusion of neuropeptide Y into the stalk-median eminence stimulates in vivo release of luteinizing hormone-release hormone in gonadectomized rhesus monkeys. Woller, M.J., Terasawa, E. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Regional distribution of binding sites for neuropeptide Y in cat and monkey visual cortex determined by in vitro receptor autoradiography. Rosier, A.M., Orban, G.A., Vandesande, F. J. Comp. Neurol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. A comparison of the development of neuropeptide and MAP2 immunocytochemical labeling in the macaque visual cortex during pre- and postnatal development. Mehra, R.D., Hendrickson, A.E. J. Neurobiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of adrenal medulla transplantation into the third ventricle on the onset of puberty in female rhesus monkeys. Gore, A.C., Saitoh, Y., Terasawa, E. Exp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Peptidergic innervation of the primate meibomian gland. Chung, C.W., Tigges, M., Stone, R.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Multiple types of neuropeptide Y-containing neurons in primate neocortex. Kuljis, R.O., Rakic, P. J. Comp. Neurol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Third-ventricular infusion of neuropeptide Y suppresses luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized rhesus macaques. Kaynard, A.H., Pau, K.Y., Hess, D.L., Spies, H.G. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Changes in pulsatile release of neuropeptide-Y and luteinizing hormone (LH)-releasing hormone during the progesterone-induced LH surge in rhesus monkeys. Woller, M.J., Terasawa, E. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Neuropeptide Y is a neuromodulator of pulsatile luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone release in the gonadectomized rhesus monkey. Woller, M.J., McDonald, J.K., Reboussin, D.M., Terasawa, E. Endocrinology (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in the nonhuman primate brain and pituitary. Diano, S., Urbanski, H.F., Horvath, B., Bechmann, I., Kagiya, A., Nemeth, G., Naftolin, F., Warden, C.H., Horvath, T.L. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. The measurement of neuropeptide Y in discrete hypothalamic and limbic regions of male rhesus macaques with a human NPY-directed antiserum. Khorram, O., Roselli, C.E., Ellinwood, W.E., Spies, H.G. Peptides (1987) [Pubmed]
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