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Gene Review

CYCD3;1  -  cyclin-D3-1

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: CYCD3, CYCLIN D3;1, F28A23.80, F28A23_80
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Disease relevance of CYCD3;1


High impact information on CYCD3;1

  • Synchronized cultures confirm that CYCD3;1-expressing (but not CYCD2;1-expressing) cells show increased G2-phase length and delayed activation of mitotic genes such as B-type cyclins, suggesting that CYCD3;1 has a specific G1/S role [2].
  • To analyze the cell cycle roles of plant D-type cyclins, we overexpressed CYCD3;1 in Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension cultures [2].
  • Ser-343 is likely a key residue in modulating CYCD3;1 activity in response to sucrose depletion [2].
  • Analysis of putative cyclin-dependent kinase phosphorylation sites within CYCD3;1 shows that mutating Ser-343 to Ala enhances CYCD3;1 potency without affecting its rate of turnover and results in a fivefold increase in the level of cell death in response to sucrose removal [2].
  • However, induction of the cell cycle in the mutant background by overexpression of the D-type cyclin (CYCD3;1) was able to trigger complete rounds of cell division in the pericycle that did not result in lateral root formation [3].

Biological context of CYCD3;1

  • In synchronized suspension-culture cells, CYCD3 transcript accumulated during the S phase, and remained constant thereafter [4].
  • Cell proliferation continues beyond the SAM in the developing internodes and confers a delayed senescence to Arath-CYCD3 over-expressing juvenile tissues [1].
  • The SAM structural modifications in the Arath-CYCD3 over-expressing lines are less drastic; only an increased cell number together with a reduced cell size, particularly in the L1 layer, characterizes the peripheral zones [1].
  • These results demonstrate that cell cycle exit in the G1-phase is required for normal cellular differentiation processes during plant development and suggest a critical role for CYCD3 in the switch from cell proliferation to the final stages of differentiation [5].
  • The predicted amino acid sequence of the cycMs4 gene is most similar to that of the Arabidopsis cyclin delta 3 gene [6].

Associations of CYCD3;1 with chemical compounds

  • Treatment of exponentially growing cells with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) confirms that CYCD3;1 is normally a highly unstable protein, with a half-life of approximately 7 min on CHX treatment [7].
  • In both sucrose-starved and exponentially growing cells, CYCD3;1 protein abundance increases in response to treatment with MG132 (carbobenzoxyl-leucinyl-leucinyl-leucinal), a reversible proteasome inhibitor, but not in response to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 or the calpain inhibitor ALLN (N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal) [7].
  • In support of this hypothesis, we show that, on restimulation of suspension-cultured cells, cyclin delta 3 is rapidly induced by the plant growth regulator cytokinin and cyclin delta 2 is induced by carbon source [8].
  • CYCD3 (delta 3) transcript levels were strongly dependent on nitrate, and were induced at the G1/S transition following phytohormone readdition [4].
  • Loss of CYCD3 impairs shoot meristem function and leads to reduced cytokinin responses, including the inability to initiate shoots on callus, without affecting endogenous cytokinin levels [9].

Other interactions of CYCD3;1

  • We conclude that CYCD3;1 is a highly unstable protein whose proteolysis is mediated by a proteasome-dependent pathway, and whose levels are highly dependent on the rate of CYCD3;1 protein synthesis [7].
  • The cytokinin-inducible genes CYCD3 and NIA1 are upregulated constitutively in rpn12a-1, indicating that feedback-inhibitory mechanisms also may be altered. rpn12a-1 seedlings also showed changes in auxin-induced growth responses, further illustrating the close interaction between auxin and cytokinin regulation [10].
  • CycMs4 and cyclin delta 3 belong to the class of D-type cyclins and contain PEST-rich regions and a retinoblastoma binding motif [6].


  1. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis CYCD2 and CYCD3 in tobacco has distinct effects on the structural organization of the shoot apical meristem. Boucheron, E., Healy, J.H., Bajon, C., Sauvanet, A., Rembur, J., Noin, M., Sekine, M., Riou Khamlichi, C., Murray, J.A., Van Onckelen, H., Chriqui, D. J. Exp. Bot. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. The D-type cyclin CYCD3;1 is limiting for the G1-to-S-phase transition in Arabidopsis. Menges, M., Samland, A.K., Planchais, S., Murray, J.A. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Cell cycle progression in the pericycle is not sufficient for SOLITARY ROOT/IAA14-mediated lateral root initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Vanneste, S., De Rybel, B., Beemster, G.T., Ljung, K., De Smet, I., Van Isterdael, G., Naudts, M., Iida, R., Gruissem, W., Tasaka, M., Inzé, D., Fukaki, H., Beeckman, T. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Modulation of cyclin transcript levels in cultured cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Fuerst, R.A., Soni, R., Murray, J.A., Lindsey, K. Plant Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3. Dewitte, W., Riou-Khamlichi, C., Scofield, S., Healy, J.M., Jacqmard, A., Kilby, N.J., Murray, J.A. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The D-type alfalfa cyclin gene cycMs4 complements G1 cyclin-deficient yeast and is induced in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Dahl, M., Meskiene, I., Bögre, L., Ha, D.T., Swoboda, I., Hubmann, R., Hirt, H., Heberle-Bors, E. Plant Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential stability of Arabidopsis D-type cyclins: CYCD3;1 is a highly unstable protein degraded by a proteasome-dependent mechanism. Planchais, S., Samland, A.K., Murray, J.A. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. A family of cyclin D homologs from plants differentially controlled by growth regulators and containing the conserved retinoblastoma protein interaction motif. Soni, R., Carmichael, J.P., Shah, Z.H., Murray, J.A. Plant Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Arabidopsis CYCD3 D-type cyclins link cell proliferation and endocycles and are rate-limiting for cytokinin responses. Dewitte, W., Scofield, S., Alcasabas, A.A., Maughan, S.C., Menges, M., Braun, N., Collins, C., Nieuwland, J., Prinsen, E., Sundaresan, V., Murray, J.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Cytokinin growth responses in Arabidopsis involve the 26S proteasome subunit RPN12. Smalle, J., Kurepa, J., Yang, P., Babiychuk, E., Kushnir, S., Durski, A., Vierstra, R.D. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
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