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Gene Review

CHY1  -  beta-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: COA-THIOESTER HYDROLASE, K14B20.11, K14B20_11
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High impact information on CHY1

  • We have cloned CHY1, which appears to encode a peroxisomal protein 43% identical to a mammalian valine catabolic enzyme that hydrolyzes beta-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA [1].
  • Mutagenesis studies showed that a glutamate that is catalytically essential in homologous enoyl-CoA hydratases was also essential in CHY1 [1].
  • It is likely that CHY1 acts in peroxisomal valine catabolism and that accumulation of a toxic intermediate, methacrylyl-CoA, causes the altered beta-oxidation phenotypes of the chy1 mutant [1].
  • The Arabidopsis chy1 mutant is resistant to indole-3-butyric acid, a naturally occurring form of the plant hormone auxin [1].
  • We demonstrated that a human beta-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase functionally complements chy1 when redirected from the mitochondria to the peroxisomes [1].

Biological context of CHY1

  • Thus, our data suggest that the 3' part of the CHY1 gene contains regulatory elements that control ZWI gene expression in dividing cells and other cells that exhibit polarized growth such as root hairs, pollen and trichomes [2].
  • The absence of CHY1 transcripts in the chy1-2 mutant did not alter either ZWI expression or ZWI-mediated trichome morphogenesis [2].

Associations of CHY1 with chemical compounds

  • These data support the hypothesis that CHY1 plays a key role in peroxisomal valine catabolism and that disruption of this enzyme results in accumulation of a toxic intermediate, methacrylyl-CoA, that inhibits 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase activity and thus blocks peroxisomal beta-oxidation [3].
  • Characterisation of the Arabidopsis dbr5 mutant, which was isolated on the basis of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid (2,4-DB) resistance, revealed that it is disrupted in the CHY1 gene [3].

Other interactions of CHY1

  • In Arabidopsis thaliana, this reaction is performed by both heme (LUT1 and LUT5) and non-heme (CHY1 and CHY2) hydroxylases [4].
  • The 5' fusions contain varying lengths of the coding and non-coding regions of beta - HYDROXYISOBUTYRYL-CoA HYDROLASE 1 ( CHY1 ), which is upstream of ZWI, and a 162 bp intergenic region [2].


  1. chy1, an Arabidopsis mutant with impaired beta-oxidation, is defective in a peroxisomal beta-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase. Zolman, B.K., Monroe-Augustus, M., Thompson, B., Hawes, J.W., Krukenberg, K.A., Matsuda, S.P., Bartel, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Developmental and cell-specific expression of ZWICHEL is regulated by the intron and exon sequences of its gene. Reddy, V.S., Reddy, A.S. Plant Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. An Arabidopsis mutant disrupted in valine catabolism is also compromised in peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. Lange, P.R., Eastmond, P.J., Madagan, K., Graham, I.A. FEBS Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Elucidation of the beta-carotene hydroxylation pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Fiore, A., Dall'osto, L., Fraser, P.D., Bassi, R., Giuliano, G. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
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