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Gene Review

BFA1  -  Bfa1p

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Cell cycle arrest protein BFA1, J1667, Mitotic check point protein BFA1, YJR053W
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High impact information on BFA1


Biological context of BFA1

  • Both Bfa1 and Bub2 localize to spindle poles, and overexpression of Bfa1 arrests the cell cycle in anaphase [3].
  • We propose that Bfa1/Bub2 checkpoint pathway functions as a universal checkpoint in G2/M that prevents CDK inactivation in response to cell-cycle delay in G2/M [4].
  • The C-terminal 184 amino acids of Bfa1p (Bfa1-D8(391-574)) contained the entire capacity of Bfa1p to generate mitotic arrest in response to spindle damage, spindle misorientation, and DNA damage [5].
  • In addition, the viability of cdc5-2 delta bfa1 cells was not reduced by BFA1(E438K), suggesting that Cdc5p also regulates Bfa1p to activate mitotic exit by other mechanism(s), besides phosphorylation [6].
  • Thus, in vivo inactivation of Bfa1-Bub2 by Cdc5 would have a positive regulatory effect by increasing levels of Tem1-GTP so stimulating exit from mitosis [7].

Anatomical context of BFA1

  • Thus, SPBs are able to sense cytoplasmic microtubule properties and regulate the Bfa1p-Bub2p GAP accordingly [8].

Physical interactions of BFA1


Regulatory relationships of BFA1

  • This effect is Bfa1 dependent and can be suppressed by high Tem1 levels [11].
  • These data indicate that Cdc14p activates the MEN in early anaphase but later inactivates it through Bfa1p dephosphorylation and so restricts MEN activity to a short period in anaphase [12].

Other interactions of BFA1

  • Here, we have demonstrated that introduction of bfa1 Delta suppresses the growth defects associated with the cdc5-1 mutation significantly better than that of bub2 Delta, suggesting that Bfa1 may have a previously uncharacterized role in this pathway [9].
  • In the spindle checkpoint pathway, this is accomplished through Bfa1/Bub2, a heteromeric GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that inhibits Clb degradation by keeping the G protein Tem1 inactive [3-5] [4].
  • We also found that the delay in mitotic exit in mutants with misoriented spindles depended on BUB2 and BFA1, but not on MAD2 [4].
  • Following spindle checkpoint activation, the cell cycle phosphorylation of Bfa1 and Lte1 is protracted and some species are accentuated [13].
  • Regulation of the Bfa1p-Bub2p complex at spindle pole bodies by the cell cycle phosphatase Cdc14p [12].


  1. Downregulation of PP2A(Cdc55) phosphatase by separase initiates mitotic exit in budding yeast. Queralt, E., Lehane, C., Novak, B., Uhlmann, F. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Regulation of the Bub2/Bfa1 GAP complex by Cdc5 and cell cycle checkpoints. Hu, F., Wang, Y., Liu, D., Li, Y., Qin, J., Elledge, S.J. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Bifurcation of the mitotic checkpoint pathway in budding yeast. Li, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. The Bfa1/Bub2 GAP complex comprises a universal checkpoint required to prevent mitotic exit. Wang, Y., Hu, F., Elledge, S.J. Curr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. The C-terminus of Bfa1p in budding yeast is essential to induce mitotic arrest in response to diverse checkpoint-activating signals. Kim, J., Jeong, J., Song, K. Genes Cells (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. The study of Bfa1p(E438K) suggests that Bfa1 control the mitotic exit network in different mechanisms depending on different checkpoint-activating signals. Kim, J., Song, K. Mol. Cells (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. In vitro regulation of budding yeast Bfa1/Bub2 GAP activity by Cdc5. Geymonat, M., Spanos, A., Walker, P.A., Johnston, L.H., Sedgwick, S.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Modes of spindle pole body inheritance and segregation of the Bfa1p-Bub2p checkpoint protein complex. Pereira, G., Tanaka, T.U., Nasmyth, K., Schiebel, E. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Bfa1 can regulate Tem1 function independently of Bub2 in the mitotic exit network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ro, H.S., Song, S., Lee, K.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. IBD2 encodes a novel component of the Bub2p-dependent spindle checkpoint in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hwang, H.S., Song, K. Genetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Disappearance of the budding yeast Bub2-Bfa1 complex from the mother-bound spindle pole contributes to mitotic exit. Fraschini, R., D'Ambrosio, C., Venturetti, M., Lucchini, G., Piatti, S. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Regulation of the Bfa1p-Bub2p complex at spindle pole bodies by the cell cycle phosphatase Cdc14p. Pereira, G., Manson, C., Grindlay, J., Schiebel, E. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. The Bub2-dependent mitotic pathway in yeast acts every cell cycle and regulates cytokinesis. Lee, S.E., Jensen, S., Frenz, L.M., Johnson, A.L., Fesquet, D., Johnston, L.H. J. Cell. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
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