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Gene Review

acpP  -  acyl carrier protein (ACP)

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK1080, JW1080
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Disease relevance of acpP


High impact information on acpP


Chemical compound and disease context of acpP


Biological context of acpP

  • Both ACP and F-ACP were purified to homogeneity, and their primary amino acid sequences were determined [10].
  • Complementation of fabF1 mutants with an F' factor harboring the wild-type synthase II allele resulted in the appearance of normal ACP, whereas complementation with an F' possessing the fabF2 allele (a mutation that produces a synthase II enzyme with altered catalytic activity) resulted in the production of both forms of ACP [10].
  • Site-directed mutagenesis of a synthetic ACP gene demonstrated that the amino acid substitution at residue 43 is the cause of the increased electrophoretic mobility [11].
  • Four different bacterium-permeating peptides, RFFRFFRFFXB, RTRTRFLRRTXB, RXXRXXRXXB, and KFFKFFKFFKXB (X is 6-aminohexanoic acid and B is beta-alanine), were separately coupled to two different PMOs that are complementary to regions near the start codons of a luciferase reporter gene (luc) and a gene required for viability (acpP) [14].
  • Only acyl carrier protein, not acyl-CoA, can promote HlyC-directed proHlyA acylation, but a range of acyl groups are effective [6].

Associations of acpP with chemical compounds

  • The two carrier proteins of O-island 138 of strain O157:H7 are not modified (or only very poorly modified) by AcpS, the PPTase responsible for 4'-phosphopantetheine attachment to the acyl carrier protein (AcpP) of fatty acid synthesis [15].
  • Moreover, on the basis of its in vitro activity, it is possible that the S. glaucescens FabD MAT is responsible for charging the TcmM ACP with malonate in vivo, a key step in the synthesis of the deca(polyketide) precursor of Tcm C [16].
  • CoA is the biosynthetic precursor to the ACP prosthetic group, but apo-ACP did not accumulate when the intracellular CoA concentration was severely depressed in strain SJ16 (panD), a beta-alanine auxotroph [17].
  • This mutation results in substitution of isoleucine for valine 43 of ACP [11].
  • It is competitive with respect to acyl-ACP but not UDP-GlcNAc [7].

Physical interactions of acpP


Other interactions of acpP


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of acpP

  • Gel filtration experiments indicated that the increased electrophoretic mobility results from the more compact structure of V43I ACP at high pH [11].
  • Correct folding of the act ACP has been confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) and 1H NMR [21].
  • An enzyme catalyzing the ligation of long chain fatty acids to bacterial acyl carrier protein (ACP) has been detected and partially characterized in cell extracts of the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi [22].


  1. The gene encoding Escherichia coli acyl carrier protein lies within a cluster of fatty acid biosynthetic genes. Rawlings, M., Cronan, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization of the acyl carrier protein gene and the fab gene locus in Xanthomonas albilineans. Huang, G., Zhang, L., Birch, R.G. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Biochemical characterization of acyl carrier protein (AcpM) and malonyl-CoA:AcpM transacylase (mtFabD), two major components of Mycobacterium tuberculosis fatty acid synthase II. Kremer, L., Nampoothiri, K.M., Lesjean, S., Dover, L.G., Graham, S., Betts, J., Brennan, P.J., Minnikin, D.E., Locht, C., Besra, G.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. The unmodified (apo) form of Escherichia coli acyl carrier protein is a potent inhibitor of cell growth. Keating, D.H., Carey, M.R., Cronan, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Shortened hydroxyacyl chains on lipid A of Escherichia coli cells expressing a foreign UDP-N-acetylglucosamine O-acyltransferase. Odegaard, T.J., Kaltashov, I.A., Cotter, R.J., Steeghs, L., van der Ley, P., Khan, S., Maskell, D.J., Raetz, C.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Activation of Escherichia coli prohaemolysin to the mature toxin by acyl carrier protein-dependent fatty acylation. Issartel, J.P., Koronakis, V., Hughes, C. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Structure of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase with a bound antibacterial pentadecapeptide. Williams, A.H., Immormino, R.M., Gewirth, D.T., Raetz, C.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Generation of cell-to-cell signals in quorum sensing: acyl homoserine lactone synthase activity of a purified Vibrio fischeri LuxI protein. Schaefer, A.L., Val, D.L., Hanzelka, B.L., Cronan, J.E., Greenberg, E.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Probing the mechanism of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III mtFabH: factors influencing catalysis and substrate specificity. Brown, A.K., Sridharan, S., Kremer, L., Lindenberg, S., Dover, L.G., Sacchettini, J.C., Besra, G.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Altered molecular form of acyl carrier protein associated with beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II (fabF) mutants. Jackowski, S., Rock, C.O. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. An isoleucine to valine substitution in Escherichia coli acyl carrier protein results in a functional protein of decreased molecular radius at elevated pH. Keating, D.H., Cronan, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Antisense peptide-phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer conjugate: dose-response in mice infected with Escherichia coli. Tilley, L.D., Mellbye, B.L., Puckett, S.E., Iversen, P.L., Geller, B.L. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Cloning, overproduction, and characterization of the Escherichia coli holo-acyl carrier protein synthase. Lambalot, R.H., Walsh, C.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Gene-specific effects of antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer-peptide conjugates on Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium in pure culture and in tissue culture. Tilley, L.D., Hine, O.S., Kellogg, J.A., Hassinger, J.N., Weller, D.D., Iversen, P.L., Geller, B.L. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. A genome rearrangement has orphaned the Escherichia coli K-12 AcpT phosphopantetheinyl transferase from its cognate Escherichia coli O157:H7 substrates. De Lay, N.R., Cronan, J.E. Mol. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Malonyl-coenzyme A:acyl carrier protein acyltransferase of Streptomyces glaucescens: a possible link between fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis. Summers, R.G., Ali, A., Shen, B., Wessel, W.A., Hutchinson, C.R. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Ratio of active to inactive forms of acyl carrier protein in Escherichia coli. Jackowski, S., Rock, C.O. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. Escherichia coli LipA is a lipoyl synthase: in vitro biosynthesis of lipoylated pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from octanoyl-acyl carrier protein. Miller, J.R., Busby, R.W., Jordan, S.W., Cheek, J., Henshaw, T.F., Ashley, G.W., Broderick, J.B., Cronan, J.E., Marletta, M.A. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. The Escherichia coli lipB gene encodes lipoyl (octanoyl)-acyl carrier protein:protein transferase. Jordan, S.W., Cronan, J.E. J. Bacteriol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Isolation and characterization of beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (fabG) mutants of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Lai, C.Y., Cronan, J.E. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Self-malonylation is an intrinsic property of a chemically synthesized type II polyketide synthase acyl carrier protein. Arthur, C.J., Szafranska, A., Evans, S.E., Findlow, S.C., Burston, S.G., Owen, P., Clark-Lewis, I., Simpson, T.J., Crosby, J., Crump, M.P. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. A soluble fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase from the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi. Byers, D.M., Holmes, C.G. Biochem. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
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