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Gene Review

putP  -  proline:sodium symporter

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK1006, JW1001, putC
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Disease relevance of putP


High impact information on putP

  • The computer-generated hypotheses for missing reactions were verified experimentally in five cases, leading to the functional assignment of eight ORFs (yjjLMN, yeaTU, dctA, idnT, and putP) with two new enzymatic activities and four transport functions [5].
  • But recombination at mdh has not occurred with sufficient frequency to obscure the phylogenetic relationships among strains indicated by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, total DNA hybridization, and sequence analysis of the gapA and putP genes [6].
  • PutA represses transcription of genes putA and putP by binding to the control DNA region of the put regulon [7].
  • A major proline carrier in Escherichia coli encoded by the putP gene mediates proline/Na+ or Li+ symport [8].
  • Proline carrier mutants with altered cation specificity were obtained by mutagenesis with nitrous acid in vitro of a plasmid carrying the wild-type putP gene [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of putP


Biological context of putP


Anatomical context of putP


Associations of putP with chemical compounds

  • The possible location of the putP gene in the DNA segment was determined by subcloning the putP gene, genetic complementation, and recombination analyses using several proline transport mutants [12].
  • The nucleotide sequence of the putP32 lesion located on the 0.35-megadalton RsaI-PvuII fragment in the putP gene in pTMP5-32 was determined; the mutation changed a cytosine at position 1001 to a thymine, causing the alteration of arginine to cysteine at amino acid position 257 in the primary structure of the proline carrier [13].
  • Four additional dispersed genes (crr, putP, trp and gnd) were added to the analysis to provide the necessary frame of reference [14].

Other interactions of putP

  • We concluded that the putC region is 419 bp long and contains two independent sets of promoters, regulating the expression of putP and putA genes in opposite directions [11].
  • We previously constructed a bifunctionally active membrane-bound fusion protein, in which Escherichia coli proline carrier (the product of the putP gene) was linked with beta-galactosidase (the product of the lacZ gene) through a collagen linker (Hanada, K., Yamato, I., and Anraku, Y. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 14100-14104) [15].
  • Based on the aforementioned criteria, the icd (isocitrate dehydrogenase), and putP (proline permease) genes were excluded as potential targets due to their high rates of horizontal gene transfer; the rrs (16S rRNA) gene was excluded as a target due to the presence of multiple gene copies, with different sequences in a single genome [16].
  • DNA sequences similar to the putP, proP, and proU loci of E. coli K-12 were detected by DNA amplification and (or) hybridization and protein specifically reactive with antibodies raised against the ProX protein of E. coli K-12 (a ProU constituent) was detected by western blotting in over 95% of the isolates [17].


  1. Nucleotide sequence of putP, the proline carrier gene of Escherichia coli K12. Nakao, T., Yamato, I., Anraku, Y. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Redesigned purification yields a fully functional PutA protein dimer from Escherichia coli. Brown, E.D., Wood, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Low-proline environments impair growth, proline transport and in vivo survival of Staphylococcus aureus strain-specific putP mutants. Schwan, W.R., Wetzel, K.J., Gomez, T.S., Stiles, M.A., Beitlich, B.D., Grunwald, S. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Isolation of the putP gene of Corynebacterium glutamicum and characterization of a low-affinity uptake system for compatible solutes. Peter, H., Bader, A., Burkovski, A., Lambert, C., Krämer, R. Arch. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Systems approach to refining genome annotation. Reed, J.L., Patel, T.R., Chen, K.H., Joyce, A.R., Applebee, M.K., Herring, C.D., Bui, O.T., Knight, E.M., Fong, S.S., Palsson, B.O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular genetic basis of allelic polymorphism in malate dehydrogenase (mdh) in natural populations of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Boyd, E.F., Nelson, K., Wang, F.S., Whittam, T.S., Selander, R.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification and characterization of the DNA-binding domain of the multifunctional PutA flavoenzyme. Gu, D., Zhou, Y., Kallhoff, V., Baban, B., Tanner, J.J., Becker, D.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Defective cation-coupling mutants of Escherichia coli Na+/proline symport carrier. Characterization and localization of mutations. Yamato, I., Ohsawa, M., Anraku, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Solubilization and functional reconstitution of the proline transport system of Escherichia coli. Chen, C.C., Wilson, T.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Ser57 in the Na+/proline permease of Escherichia coli is critical for high-affinity proline uptake. Quick, M., Tebbe, S., Jung, H. Eur. J. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Nucleotide sequence of putC, the regulatory region for the put regulon of Escherichia coli K12. Nakao, T., Yamato, I., Anraku, Y. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. Genetic and physical characterization of putP, the proline carrier gene of Escherichia coli K12. Mogi, T., Yamamoto, H., Nakao, T., Yamato, I., Anraku, Y. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Proline carrier mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 with altered cation sensitivity of substrate-binding activity: cloning, biochemical characterization, and identification of the mutation. Ohsawa, M., Mogi, T., Yamamoto, H., Yamato, I., Anraku, Y. J. Bacteriol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Detecting selective sweeps in naturally occurring Escherichia coli. Guttman, D.S., Dykhuizen, D.E. Genetics (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Purification and reconstitution of Escherichia coli proline carrier using a site specifically cleavable fusion protein. Hanada, K., Yamato, I., Anraku, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Microbial source tracking by DNA sequence analysis of the Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase gene. Ivanetich, K.M., Hsu, P.H., Wunderlich, K.M., Messenger, E., Walkup, W.G., Scott, T.M., Lukasik, J., Davis, J. J. Microbiol. Methods (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Genes encoding osmoregulatory proline/glycine betaine transporters and the proline catabolic system are present and expressed in diverse clinical Escherichia coli isolates. Culham, D.E., Emmerson, K.S., Lasby, B., Mamelak, D., Steer, B.A., Gyles, C.L., Villarejo, M., Wood, J.M. Can. J. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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