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Gene Review

aceB  -  malate synthase A

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: ECK4006, JW3974, mas
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Disease relevance of aceB


High impact information on aceB

  • Gene replacement was further confirmed by the absence of the vector and the 2-kb segment of mas replaced by hyg from the genome of the mutant [6].
  • A single gene (mas) encodes the multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of very long chain multiple methyl branched fatty acids called mycocerosic acids that are present only in slow-growing pathogenic mycobacteria and are thought to be important for pathogenesis [6].
  • This is a bypass of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in which isocitrate lyase and malate synthase (GlcB) catalyze the net incorporation of carbon during growth of microorganisms on acetate or fatty acids as the primary carbon source [5].
  • In the case of the aceBAK operon, IclR binds to IclR box II between -52 and -19 of the aceB promoter and interferes with binding of the RNA polymerase to this promoter [7].
  • A secondary IclR binding site (IclR box I) was identified between -125 and -99 of the aceB promoter [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of aceB


Biological context of aceB


Anatomical context of aceB

  • Comparison of the sequence of malate synthase from cucumber with that from E. coli and with other glyoxysomal and peroxisomal enzymes, shows that a conserved C-terminal tripeptide is a common feature of those enzymes imported into microbodies [15].

Associations of aceB with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of aceB

  • Transcriptional analysis revealed that aceA and aceB are expressed as a 5-kb polycistronic transcript from a promoter upstream of aceA [19].

Other interactions of aceB

  • Isocitrate lyase and malate synthase were readily identified by autoradiography after the products of the operon clone were labeled by the maxicell procedure and then resolved by electrophoresis [20].
  • In addition, the differential expression of genes aceB, aceA, and aceK has been tested both in vivo in a minicell system and in vitro in a plasmid-directed transcription-translation coupled system [21].
  • Other regulated operons were shown to bind FruR to a single site upstream of the first structural gene as follows: (1) ppsA (positive regulation); (2) icd (positive regulation); (3) aceB (positive regulation); and (4) pts (negative regulation) [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of aceB


  1. Malate synthase from Corynebacterium glutamicum: sequence analysis of the gene and biochemical characterization of the enzyme. Reinscheid, D.J., Eikmanns, B.J., Sahm, H. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Cloning, heterologous expression and purification of an isocitrate lyase from Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL 3585. Soh, B.S., Loke, P., Sim, T.S. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Gene cloning and sequencing, and enzyme purification of the malate synthase of Streptomyces arenae. Hüttner, S., Mecke, D., Fröhlich, K.U. Gene (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Glyoxylate bypass enzymes in Yersinia species and multiple forms of isocitrate lyase in Yersinia pestis. Hillier, S., Charnetzky, W.T. J. Bacteriol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Biochemical and structural studies of malate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Smith, C.V., Huang, C.C., Miczak, A., Russell, D.G., Sacchettini, J.C., Höner zu Bentrup, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Targeted replacement of the mycocerosic acid synthase gene in Mycobacterium bovis BCG produces a mutant that lacks mycosides. Azad, A.K., Sirakova, T.D., Rogers, L.M., Kolattukudy, P.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Two different modes of transcription repression of the Escherichia coli acetate operon by IclR. Yamamoto, K., Ishihama, A. Mol. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification and characterization of glxR, a gene involved in regulation of glyoxylate bypass in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Kim, H.J., Kim, T.H., Kim, Y., Lee, H.S. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Structure of the Escherichia coli malate synthase G:pyruvate:acetyl-coenzyme A abortive ternary complex at 1.95 A resolution. Anstrom, D.M., Kallio, K., Remington, S.J. Protein Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Phosphorylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli mutants with a non-functional glyoxylate cycle. Reeves, H.C., Malloy, P.J. FEBS Lett. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular cloning, heterologous expression, and functional characterisation of a malate synthase gene from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Loke, P., Sim, T.S. Can. J. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Malate synthase from Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL3585: cloning, molecular characterization and its control by acetate. Chan, M., Sim, T.S. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Presence of two transcribed malate synthase genes in an n-alkane-utilizing yeast, Candida tropicalis. Hikida, M., Atomi, H., Fukuda, Y., Aoki, A., Hishida, T., Teranishi, Y., Ueda, M., Tanaka, A. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Metabolic regulation analysis of icd-gene knockout Escherichia coli based on 2D electrophoresis with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and enzyme activity measurements. Kabir, M.M., Shimizu, K. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. The malate synthase gene of cucumber. Graham, I.A., Smith, L.M., Brown, J.W., Leaver, C.J., Smith, S.M. Plant Mol. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Global metabolic regulation analysis for Escherichia coli K12 based on protein expression by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and enzyme activity measurement. Peng, L., Shimizu, K. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Purification and immunochemical characterization of malate synthase from Euglena gracilis. Woodcock, E., Merrett, M.J. Biochem. J. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Isolation and properties of a mutant of Escherichia coli with an insertional inactivation of the uspA gene, which encodes a universal stress protein. Nyström, T., Neidhardt, F.C. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Sequences and expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rae, J.L., Cutfield, J.F., Lamont, I.L. J. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Glyoxylate bypass operon of Escherichia coli: cloning and determination of the functional map. Chung, T., Klumpp, D.J., LaPorte, D.C. J. Bacteriol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Utilization of acetate in Escherichia coli: structural organization and differential expression of the ace operon. Cortay, J.C., Bleicher, F., Duclos, B., Cenatiempo, Y., Gautier, C., Prato, J.L., Cozzone, A.J. Biochimie (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. In vitro binding of the pleiotropic transcriptional regulatory protein, FruR, to the fru, pps, ace, pts and icd operons of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Ramseier, T.M., Nègre, D., Cortay, J.C., Scarabel, M., Cozzone, A.J., Saier, M.H. J. Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Thermostable malate synthase of Streptomyces thermovulgaris. Goh, L.L., Koh, R., Loke, P., Sim, T.S. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular cloning and sequencing of the gene for mycocerosic acid synthase, a novel fatty acid elongating multifunctional enzyme, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin. Mathur, M., Kolattukudy, P.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Replacement of arginine-171 and aspartate-453 in Streptomyces coelicolor malate synthase A by site-directed mutagenesis inactivates the enzyme. Goh, L.L., Loke, P., Sim, T.S. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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