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MeSH Review

Social Class

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Disease relevance of Social Class


Psychiatry related information on Social Class


High impact information on Social Class


Chemical compound and disease context of Social Class


Biological context of Social Class


Anatomical context of Social Class


Associations of Social Class with chemical compounds


Gene context of Social Class

  • Predictors at wave 1 for wave 2 cases status included lower socioeconomic status, less family cohesiveness, and greater family inhibition/control [36].
  • Association of markers of systemic inflammation, C reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and fibrinogen, with socioeconomic status [37].
  • Plasma concentrations at rest of TNF-alpha, IL-1Ra, and IL-6 (women only) were associated with socioeconomic status, with lower levels in the high status group, but the effect was non-linear [38].
  • DESIGN: We measured serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels in a group of Malaysian aborigine children from three jungle settlements; Sinderut and Pos Lanai are known for iodine deficiency and endemic goitre, and Gombak is an iodine replete area with better socioeconomic status [39].
  • Severe CAG (PGI < or = 20 pg/liter) affected 5.8% of the population, but the prevalence rose with increasing age and declining social class [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Social Class


  1. The sequelae of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in school-age children. Taylor, H.G., Mills, E.L., Ciampi, A., du Berger, R., Watters, G.V., Gold, R., MacDonald, N., Michaels, R.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Depressive symptoms as predictors of medical outcomes in HIV infection. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Lyketsos, C.G., Hoover, D.R., Guccione, M., Senterfitt, W., Dew, M.A., Wesch, J., VanRaden, M.J., Treisman, G.J., Morgenstern, H. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Heart disease in Asians and Pacific-Islanders, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Yu, P.N. Circulation (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Leisure time physical activity is associated with poor glycemic control in type 1 diabetic women: the FinnDiane study. Wadén, J., Tikkanen, H., Forsblom, C., Fagerudd, J., Pettersson-Fernholm, K., Lakka, T., Riska, M., Groop, P.H. Diabetes Care (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Racial and ethnic differences in health care access and health outcomes for adults with type 2 diabetes. Harris, M.I. Diabetes Care (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Psychiatric comorbidity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: findings from multiplex families. McGough, J.J., Smalley, S.L., McCracken, J.T., Yang, M., Del'Homme, M., Lynn, D.E., Loo, S. The American journal of psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential effect of environmental adversity by gender: Rutter's index of adversity in a group of boys and girls with and without ADHD. Biederman, J., Faraone, S.V., Monuteaux, M.C. The American journal of psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. The environmental predictors of allergic disease. von Mutius, E. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Serum sodium concentration and risk of stroke in middle-aged males. Wannamethee, G., Whincup, P.H., Shaper, A.G., Lever, A.F. J. Hypertens. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. A prospective evaluation of early language development in children with in utero cocaine exposure and in control subjects. Hurt, H., Malmud, E., Betancourt, L., Brodsky, N.L., Giannetta, J. J. Pediatr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Long-term prognosis of seizures with onset in childhood. Sillanpää, M., Jalava, M., Kaleva, O., Shinnar, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Childhood malnutrition and postwar reconstruction in rural El Salvador: a community-based survey. Brentlinger, P.E., Hernán, M.A., Hernández-Díaz, S., Azaroff, L.S., McCall, M. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Efficacy of acellular pertussis vaccine in early childhood after household exposure. Schmitt, H.J., von König, C.H., Neiss, A., Bogaerts, H., Bock, H.L., Schulte-Wissermann, H., Gahr, M., Schult, R., Folkens, J.U., Rauh, W., Clemens, R. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Ophthalmic examination among adults with diagnosed diabetes mellitus. Brechner, R.J., Cowie, C.C., Howie, L.J., Herman, W.H., Will, J.C., Harris, M.I. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Serum retinol and risk of subsequent cancer: extension of the Evans County, Georgia, study. Peleg, I., Heyden, S., Knowles, M., Hames, C.G. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Occupational status, cortisol secretory pattern, and visceral obesity in middle-aged men. Rosmond, R., Björntorp, P. Obes. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Low incidence of hospitalization with gallbladder disease among blacks in the United States. Sichieri, R., Everhart, J.E., Roth, H.P. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Frequency of family history of acute myocardial infarction in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Argentine FRICAS (Factores de Riesgo Coronario en America del Sur) Investigators. Ciruzzi, M., Schargrodsky, H., Rozlosnik, J., Pramparo, P., Delmonte, H., Rudich, V., Piskorz, D., Negri, E., Soifer, S., La Vecchia, C. Am. J. Cardiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Coronary risk factors and their pathway of action through coronary raised lesions, coronary stenoses and coronary death. Multivariate statistical analysis of an autopsy series: the Oslo Study. Holme, I., Solberg, L.A., Weissfeld, L., Helgeland, A., Hjermann, I., Leren, P., Strong, J.P., Williams, O.D. Am. J. Cardiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical inactivity in 20- to 29-year-old, Danish men. Relation to sociodemography, physical dysfunction and low socioeconomic status: the Odense Androgen Study. Nielsen, T.L., Wraae, K., Brixen, K., Hermann, A.P., Andersen, M., Hagen, C. International journal of obesity (2005) (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Birthweight, body-mass index in middle age, and incident coronary heart disease. Frankel, S., Elwood, P., Sweetnam, P., Yarnell, J., Smith, G.D. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Prospective study of serum total homocysteine concentration and risk of stroke in middle-aged British men. Perry, I.J., Refsum, H., Morris, R.W., Ebrahim, S.B., Ueland, P.M., Shaper, A.G. Lancet (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Socioeconomic status, access to triple therapy, and survival from HIV-disease since 1996. Wood, E., Montaner, J.S., Chan, K., Tyndall, M.W., Schechter, M.T., Bangsberg, D., O'Shaughnessy, M.V., Hogg, R.S. AIDS (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. The association of socioeconomic status and use of crack/cocaine with unprotected anal sex in a cohort of men who have sex with men in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. de Souza, C.T., Diaz, T., Sutmoller, F., Bastos, F.I. J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Daily movement, adiposity, and blood glucose among older adults of middle to lower socioeconomic status. Pescatello, L.S., Murphy, D., DiPietro, L. American journal of public health. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia incidence in the UK by immunophenotype. McKinney, P.A., Alexander, F.E., Cartwright, R.A., Scott, C.S., Staines, A. Leukemia (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Caries in primary dentition and social class in high and low fluoride areas. Hausen, H., Milen, A., Heinonen, O.P., Paunio, I. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Dietary intakes and adipose tissue levels of linoleic acid in peptic ulcer disease. Kearney, J., Kennedy, N.P., Keeling, P.W., Keating, J.J., Grubb, L., Kennedy, M., Gibney, M.J. Br. J. Nutr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Social inequity in risk of coronary artery disease in Ontario. Jaglal, S.B., Goel, V. The Canadian journal of cardiology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Liver reserves of iron, copper, and vitamin B12 in Brazilian fetuses and infants of different socioeconomic status. Donangelo, C.M., Trugo, N.M., Dórea, J.G., Araújo, M.O. Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.) (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Relation between coronary risk and coronary mortality in women of the Renfrew and Paisley survey: comparison with men. Isles, C.G., Hole, D.J., Hawthorne, V.M., Lever, A.F. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in Indians: a case-control study. Pais, P., Pogue, J., Gerstein, H., Zachariah, E., Savitha, D., Jayprakash, S., Nayak, P.R., Yusuf, S. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Depression and anxiety in relation to social status. A prospective epidemiologic study. Murphy, J.M., Olivier, D.C., Monson, R.R., Sobol, A.M., Federman, E.B., Leighton, A.H. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Violence by patients admitted to a private psychiatric hospital. Tardiff, K., Marzuk, P.M., Leon, A.C., Portera, L., Weiner, C. The American journal of psychiatry. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Tropical enteropathy in Rhodesia. Thomas, G., Clain, D.J., Wicks, A.C. Gut (1976) [Pubmed]
  36. Psychiatric disorders with onset in the preschool years: II. Correlates and predictors of stable case status. Lavigne, J.V., Arend, R., Rosenbaum, D., Binns, H.J., Christoffel, K.K., Gibbons, R.D. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. Association of markers of systemic inflammation, C reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and fibrinogen, with socioeconomic status. Jousilahti, P., Salomaa, V., Rasi, V., Vahtera, E., Palosuo, T. Journal of epidemiology and community health. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Inflammatory cytokines, socioeconomic status, and acute stress responsivity. Steptoe, A., Owen, N., Kunz-Ebrecht, S., Mohamed-Ali, V. Brain Behav. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  39. Effects of iodine deficiency on insulin-like growth factor-I, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels and height attainment in malnourished children. Wan Nazaimoon, W.M., Osman, A., Wu, L.L., Khalid, B.A. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1996) [Pubmed]
  40. Plasma pepsinogens, nutrients, and diet in areas of Italy at varying gastric cancer risk. Palli, D., Decarli, A., Cipriani, F., Forman, D., Amadori, D., Avellini, C., Giacosa, A., Manca, P., Russo, A., Salkeld, R.M. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  41. Water source as risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection in Peruvian children. Gastrointestinal Physiology Working Group. Klein, P.D., Graham, D.Y., Gaillour, A., Opekun, A.R., Smith, E.O. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  42. Mouse allergen exposure and mouse skin test sensitivity in suburban, middle-class children with asthma. Matsui, E.C., Wood, R.A., Rand, C., Kanchanaraksa, S., Swartz, L., Eggleston, P.A. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  43. Incidence and description of structural brain abnormalities in newborns exposed to cocaine. Behnke, M., Davis Eyler, F., Conlon, M., Wobie, K., Stewart Woods, N., Cumming, W. J. Pediatr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  44. Gaseous air pollutants and asthma hospitalization of children with low household income in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Lin, M., Chen, Y., Villeneuve, P.J., Burnett, R.T., Lemyre, L., Hertzman, C., McGrail, K.M., Krewski, D. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  45. Socioeconomic gradient in use of statins among Danish patients: population-based cross-sectional study. Thomsen, R.W., Johnsen, S.P., Olesen, A.V., Mortensen, J.T., Bøggild, H., Olsen, J., Sørensen, H.T. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (2005) [Pubmed]
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