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MeSH Review

Alligators and Crocodiles

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Disease relevance of Alligators and Crocodiles


High impact information on Alligators and Crocodiles

  • Three-dimensional protein structural modeling predicts that the caytaxin ligand is more polar than vitamin E. Identification of the caytaxin ligand may help develop a therapy for Cayman ataxia [5].
  • We found two mutations exclusively in all individuals with Cayman ataxia [5].
  • Modern surface bone assemblages along the Grumeti River in Tanzania's Serengeti National Park contain a mixture of specimens bearing damage characteristic of crocodiles and mammalian carnivores [6].
  • 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (YC-1) (Cayman Co., Malmö, Sweden) increases the catalytic rate of sGC by binding to an allosteric site [7].
  • The developing lizard cortex differs from that of turtles, birds, crocodiles, and mammals in that it displays heavy reelin expression not only in neurons of the marginal zone that might be homologous to mammalian Cajal-Retzius cells, but also in subplate neurons [8].

Biological context of Alligators and Crocodiles


Associations of Alligators and Crocodiles with chemical compounds

  • When caimans were anesthetized 2 h after submergence, osteoderm lactate in the same animals was significantly increased to 14.8 micromol g(-1) wet mass [10].
  • NO levels were measured by photometric analysis by using a nitrite/nitrate assay kit (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI) [11].
  • First, we examined the ability of freshwater crocodiles to produce corticosterone in response to a typical capture-stress protocol [12].
  • Catchment-specific element signatures in estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) from the Alligator Rivers Region, northern Australia [13].
  • This suggests that uric acid is the main constituent of nitrogenous waste excretion in saline exposed Nile crocodiles [14].

Gene context of Alligators and Crocodiles

  • Sections were incubated with normal rabbit serum for 15 min, then with rabbit polyclonal antiserum against human COX-2 (Cayman, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) [15].
  • The selective PGHS-2 inhibitor, Nimesulide (Cayman Chemical, Ann Arbor, MI), significantly decreased plasma PGE2 concentrations [9].
  • Non-telencephalic regions in both vocal learning and non-learning birds, and in crocodiles, were less variable in expression and comparable with regions that express FOXP2 in human and rodent brains [16].
  • As reelin is a key component of cortical development in mammals, comparative embryological studies of reelin expression were carried out during cortical development in non-mammalian amniotes (turtles, squamates, birds and crocodiles) in order to assess the putative role of reelin during cortical evolution [17].
  • epsilon-Crystallin occurs as an abundant lens protein in many birds and in crocodiles and has been identified as heart-type lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-B4) [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Alligators and Crocodiles

  • Thyroidectomy resulted in a significant decrease in metabolic rate in 30-32 degrees C acclimated lizards and tortoises and thyroxine injections resulted in significant increases in metabolism in 30-32 degrees C acclimated lizards, tortoises and crocodiles [19].
  • All the crocodiles were initially given intramuscular injections with kanamycin on alternating days for 8 d, coupled with adjustment of the ambient temperature to 29 degrees C. The holding pens were cleaned and disinfected with 2% formalin at the onset of treatment [20].


  1. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 26 maps to chromosome 19p13.3 adjacent to SCA6. Yu, G.Y., Howell, M.J., Roller, M.J., Xie, T.D., Gomez, C.M. Ann. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Genome of crocodilepox virus. Afonso, C.L., Tulman, E.R., Delhon, G., Lu, Z., Viljoen, G.J., Wallace, D.B., Kutish, G.F., Rock, D.L. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Mapping of the KHSRP gene to a region of conserved synteny on human chromosome 19p13.3 and mouse chromosome 17. Ring, H.Z., Vameghi-Meyers, V., Nikolic, J.M., Min, H., Black, D.L., Francke, U. Genomics (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Dopaminergic neurotoxicity by 6-OHDA and MPP+: differential requirement for neuronal cyclooxygenase activity. Carrasco, E., Casper, D., Werner, P. J. Neurosci. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Mutations in a novel gene encoding a CRAL-TRIO domain cause human Cayman ataxia and ataxia/dystonia in the jittery mouse. Bomar, J.M., Benke, P.J., Slattery, E.L., Puttagunta, R., Taylor, L.P., Seong, E., Nystuen, A., Chen, W., Albin, R.L., Patel, P.D., Kittles, R.A., Sheffield, V.C., Burmeister, M. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. A diagnosis of crocodile feeding traces on larger mammal bone, with fossil examples from the Plio-Pleistocene Olduvai Basin, Tanzania. Njau, J.K., Blumenschine, R.J. J. Hum. Evol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Carbon monoxide relaxes the female pig urethra as effectively as nitric oxide in the presence of YC-1. Schroder, A., Hedlund, P., Andersson, K.E. J. Urol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Reelin expression during embryonic brain development in lacertilian lizards. Goffinet, A.M., Bar, I., Bernier, B., Trujillo, C., Raynaud, A., Meyer, G. J. Comp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Does reduction of circulating prostaglandin E2 reduce fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity? Reimsnider, S.K., Wood, C.E. J. Soc. Gynecol. Investig. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Lactate sequestration by osteoderms of the broad-nose caiman, Caiman latirostris, following capture and forced submergence. Jackson, D.C., Andrade, D.V., Abe, A.S. J. Exp. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Nitric oxide and subarachnoid hemorrhage: elevated level in cerebrospinal fluid and their implications. Ng, W.H., Moochhala, S., Yeo, T.T., Ong, P.L., Ng, P.Y. Neurosurgery (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Interactions between ecology, demography, capture stress, and profiles of corticosterone and glucose in a free-living population of Australian freshwater crocodiles. Jessop, T.S., Tucker, A.D., Limpus, C.J., Whittier, J.M. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Catchment-specific element signatures in estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus) from the Alligator Rivers Region, northern Australia. Markich, S.J., Jeffree, R.A., Harch, B.D. Sci. Total Environ. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Osmoregulation of the Nile crocodile, Crocodylus niloticus, in Lake St. Lucia, Kwazulu/Natal, South Africa. Leslie, A.J., Spotila, J.R. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in non-neoplastic and neoplastic vulvar epithelial lesions. Ferrandina, G., Ranelletti, F.O., Salutari, V., Gessi, M., Legge, F., Zannoni, G.F., Scambia, G., Lauriola, L. Gynecol. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. FoxP2 expression in avian vocal learners and non-learners. Haesler, S., Wada, K., Nshdejan, A., Morrisey, E.E., Lints, T., Jarvis, E.D., Scharff, C. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. The role of reelin in the development and evolution of the cerebral cortex. Tissir, F., Lambert de Rouvroit, C., Goffinet, A.M. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Comparison of stability properties of lactate dehydrogenase B4/epsilon-crystallin from different species. Voorter, C.E., Wintjes, L.T., Heinstra, P.W., Bloemendal, H., De Jong, W.W. Eur. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Thyroid function in a lizard, a tortoise and a crocodile, compared with mammals. Hulbert, A.J., Williams, C.A. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. A, Comparative physiology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Treatment and control of an outbreak of salmonellosis in hatchling Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). Huchzermeyer, K.D. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. (1991) [Pubmed]
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