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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
MeSH Review

Toxocara

 
 
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Disease relevance of Toxocara

  • Purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and excretory-secretory antigen(s) of Toxocara canis expand in vitro human T cells with stable and opposite (type 1 T helper or type 2 T helper) profile of cytokine production [1].
  • It is suggested that Toxocara, among other environmental factors, may stimulate polyclonally immunoglobulin E production, including allergen-specific immunoglobulin E, and thus may contribute to the manifestation of allergic asthma and possibly of eczema in children predisposed to allergy [2].
  • Induction of a marked eosinophilia by cyclophosphamide in Toxocara canis infected SJL mice [3].
  • An open randomized study was carried out to assess the efficacy of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and mebendazole (MBZ) across, respectively, 39 and 41 patients, all exhibiting clinical and biological features evocative of toxocariasis, together with a positive immunodiagnosis by Western blot using Toxocara larvae excretory-secretory antigens [4].
  • We report a case of eosinophilic pleural effusion and CD8 cell deficiency associated with Toxocara sp. The symptoms of this patient responded promptly to a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication (naproxen) [5].
 

High impact information on Toxocara

  • An abundantly expressed mucin-like protein from Toxocara canis infective larvae: the precursor of the larval surface coat glycoproteins [6].
  • An abundant, trans-spliced mRNA from Toxocara canis infective larvae encodes a 26-kDa protein with homology to phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins [7].
  • Iodinated surface antigens of similar m.w. were precipitated by each antibody after detergent solubilization, but only two clones (Tcn-2 and -8) were able to bind exposed sites on the epicuticle of intact Toxocara larvae [8].
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between epilepsy and infection with Taenia solium and Toxocara canis with a case-control study, in the rural area of the Cordillera Province, Bolivia [9].
  • In vivo changes of hemopoietic progenitors and the expression of the interleukin 5 gene in eosinophilic mice infected with Toxocara canis [10].
 

Chemical compound and disease context of Toxocara

 

Biological context of Toxocara

  • OBJECTIVE: This study examines the effect of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water inhalation on the systemic histamine hyperreactivity of Toxocara canis-infected mice [14].
  • Infectivity and pathogenicity to mice of embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis, that had been maintained in 2% formalin for 14 months at 4 degrees C, were evaluated by immunological and pathological assessment at 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 42 and 67 weeks post-infection (WPI) [15].
  • D. immitis antigen injected into uninfected dogs having no detectable IgG antibody to D. immitis or Toxocara canis produced a rapid drop in blood pressure that paralleled a drop in C1 and C3 levels and an increase in prostaglandin D2 [16].
  • To reduce migration of Toxocara larvae a single course of albendazole is suggested in cases where eosinophilia and serology are at least moderately positive [17].
  • Kinetics of the reduction of oxaloacetate catalyzed by mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase of Toxocara canis muscle [18].
 

Anatomical context of Toxocara

  • Blood samples from 1,379 Dutch urban and rural elementary schoolchildren, were examined for Toxocara antibodies, eosinophil numbers, total IgE concentrations, and the occurrence of inhaled allergen-specific IgE [19].
  • The effect of four Toxocara canis antigens on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis was studied in vitro using rat alveolar macrophages [20].
  • Because the induction of host IL-4 is characteristic of infection with nematodes, we asked whether E/S from two other nematode parasites, Nippostrongylus braziliensis and Toxocara canis were also capable of generating a suppressor cell population [21].
  • Suspensions of fertilized eggs of Toxocara canis were mixed with 2% neutral formalin and preserved at 4 degrees C. When, after storage for 0, 12, 18, 21 and 24 months, samples of the eggs were incubated at 30 degrees C for 12 days, 96.8%, 92.6%, 74.1%, 51.0% and 19.3% of the eggs in the samples were found to embryonate [22].
  • Intestinal parasites were recovered, identified, counted, sexed, and preserved in either 10% formalin or frozen at -70 degrees C. The geometric mean numbers of adult Toxocara canis in the small intestines for Group A puppies (n = 40) were 2.8, 8.5 for Group B puppies (n = 39), and 29.7 for Group D puppies (n = 28) [23].
 

Associations of Toxocara with chemical compounds

 

Gene context of Toxocara

  • Cultures of 5 x 10(4) bone marrow cells using interleukin 3 (IL-3), IL-5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor showed that nu/nu and nu/+ mice mimicked each other in eosinophil production both before and after infection with Toxocara canis [29].
  • Inhibition of interleukin 5 production with no influence on interleukin 4 production by an anti-allergic drug, tranilast, in Toxocara canis-infected mice [30].
  • The relationships between inflammation in organs with Toxocara canis larval migration and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were investigated following the infection of mice with 1,000 infective eggs [31].
  • Characterisation of Tc-cpl-1, a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from Toxocara canis infective larvae [25].
  • The impact of Toxocara canis infection on the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T splenocytes, the serum concentrations of cytokine IFN-gamma and IL-5, and the production of Toxocara-specific antibodies were studied in two C57BL6/J mouse groups and their offspring [32].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Toxocara

  • Ascaris showed the greatest degree of cross-reactivity in these tests, although under conditions of competitive inhibition even sera with high levels of antibody against this parasite could be negative in Toxocara ELISA [33].
  • A paper radioimmunosorbent test (PRIST) for the detection of larva-specific antibodies to Toxocara canis in human sera [34].
  • 300 micrograms of total RNA was extracted from 1 ml of packed Toxocara canis larvae by centrifugation through a 5.7 M cesium chloride cushion [35].
  • Sera from patients suffering from toxocarosis, a disease caused by the parasitic roundworm Toxocara canis, and from healthy individuals were tested for autoantibodies by immunofluorescence and immunoblot assays using HEp-2 cells as antigen [36].
  • In La Réunion island (Indian Ocean) a seroepidemiological survey for toxocariasis was carried out among 387 subjects over 15 years old by Western blotting using Toxocara canis excretory-secretory larval antigens; 92.8% of the sera were positive [37].

References

  1. Purified protein derivative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and excretory-secretory antigen(s) of Toxocara canis expand in vitro human T cells with stable and opposite (type 1 T helper or type 2 T helper) profile of cytokine production. Del Prete, G.F., De Carli, M., Mastromauro, C., Biagiotti, R., Macchia, D., Falagiani, P., Ricci, M., Romagnani, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Toxocara seroprevalence in 5-year-old elementary schoolchildren: relation with allergic asthma. Buijs, J., Borsboom, G., van Gemund, J.J., Hazebroek, A., van Dongen, P.A., van Knapen, F., Neijens, H.J. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Induction of a marked eosinophilia by cyclophosphamide in Toxocara canis infected SJL mice. Sugane, K., Oshima, T. Parasite Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Comparative efficacy of diethylcarbamazine and mebendazole for the treatment of human toxocariasis. Magnaval, J.F. Parasitology (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. A presumptive case of toxocariasis associated with eosinophilic pleural effusion: case report and literature review. Ashwath, M.L., Robinson, D.R., Katner, H.P. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. An abundantly expressed mucin-like protein from Toxocara canis infective larvae: the precursor of the larval surface coat glycoproteins. Gems, D., Maizels, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. An abundant, trans-spliced mRNA from Toxocara canis infective larvae encodes a 26-kDa protein with homology to phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins. Gems, D., Ferguson, C.J., Robertson, B.D., Nieves, R., Page, A.P., Blaxter, M.L., Maizels, R.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Shared carbohydrate epitopes on distinct surface and secreted antigens of the parasitic nematode Toxocara canis. Maizels, R.M., Kennedy, M.W., Meghji, M., Robertson, B.D., Smith, H.V. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Epilepsy, cysticercosis, and toxocariasis: a population-based case-control study in rural Bolivia. Nicoletti, A., Bartoloni, A., Reggio, A., Bartalesi, F., Roselli, M., Sofia, V., Rosado Chavez, J., Gamboa Barahona, H., Paradisi, F., Cancrini, G., Tsang, V.C., Hall, A.J. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. In vivo changes of hemopoietic progenitors and the expression of the interleukin 5 gene in eosinophilic mice infected with Toxocara canis. Yamaguchi, Y., Matsui, T., Kasahara, T., Etoh, S., Tominaga, A., Takatsu, K., Miura, Y., Suda, T. Exp. Hematol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Treatment of cutaneous larva migrans and Toxocara infection. Caumes, E. Fundamental & clinical pharmacology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Use of systemic cyclosporin A in a case of severe Toxocara uveitis. Mora, P., Vecchi, M., Barbera, L., Toscani, M., Orsoni, J.G. J. Infect. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Anthelmintic efficacy of oxibendazole against some important nematodes in dogs and cats. Overgaauw, P.A., Boersema, J.H. The Veterinary quarterly. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Ultrasonically nebulized distilled water prevents exogenous histamine hyperreactivity in Toxocara canis-infected mice. Sá-Nunes, A., Bolzoni, R.M., Medeiros, A.I., Jamur, M.C., Oliver, C., Baruffi, M.D., Faccioli, L.H. Inflamm. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Infectivity and pathogenicity of 14-month-cultured embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis in mice. Fan, C.K., Lin, Y.H., Du, W.Y., Su, K.E. Vet. Parasitol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Dirofilaria immitis: diethylcarbamazine-induced anaphylactoid reactions in infected dogs. Hamilton, R.G., Wagner, E., April, M., Winkelstein, J.A., Sobotka, A.K., Bleeker, E., Adkinson, N.F. Exp. Parasitol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Toxocariasis in humans: clinical expression and treatment dilemma. Pawlowski, Z. J. Helminthol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Kinetics of the reduction of oxaloacetate catalyzed by mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase of Toxocara canis muscle. Mansini, E., Oestreicher, E.G., Ribeiro, L.P. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Relationship between allergic manifestations and Toxocara seropositivity: a cross-sectional study among elementary school children. Buijs, J., Borsboom, G., Renting, M., Hilgersom, W.J., van Wieringen, J.C., Jansen, G., Neijens, J. Eur. Respir. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Toxocara canis antigens stimulate the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 by rat alveolar macrophages. Espinoza, E., Muro, A., Martín, M.M., Casanueva, P., Pérez-Arellano, J.L. Parasite Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Profound suppression of cellular proliferation mediated by the secretions of nematodes. Allen, J.E., MacDonald, A.S. Parasite Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. The infectivity and antigenicity of Toxocara canis eggs can be retained after long-term preservation. Chung, L.Y., Fang, B.H., Chang, J.H., Chye, S.M., Yen, C.M. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Strategic use of ivermectin during pregnancy to control toxocara canis in greyhound puppies. Payne, P.A., Ridley, R.K. Vet. Parasitol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification, characterization and expression of Toxocara canis nematode polyprotein allergen TBA-1. Yahiro, S., Cain, G., Butler, J.E. Parasite Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterisation of Tc-cpl-1, a cathepsin L-like cysteine protease from Toxocara canis infective larvae. Loukas, A., Selzer, P.M., Maizels, R.M. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Oral, parenteral and paratenic infections of mice with Toxocara pteropodis. Prociv, P., Brindley, P.J. Int. J. Parasitol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. The surfaces of the parasitic nematodes Trichinella spiralis and Toxocara canis differ in the binding of post-C3 components of human complement by the alternative pathway. Kennedy, M.W., Kuo, Y.M. Parasite Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Activation of complement in C-reactive protein positive sera by phosphorylcholine-bearing component isolated from parasite extract. Sugane, K., Oshima, T. Parasite Immunol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Mechanisms of eosinophilia in Toxocara canis infected mice: in vitro production of interleukin 5 by lung cells of both normal and congenitally athymic nude mice. Takamoto, M., Sugane, K. Parasite Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Inhibition of interleukin 5 production with no influence on interleukin 4 production by an anti-allergic drug, tranilast, in Toxocara canis-infected mice. Hiratochi, M., Takamoto, M., Tatemichi, S., Sugane, K. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in mice during Toxocara canis larvae migration. Lai, S.C., Chen, K.M., Chen, H.C., Lee, H.H. Parasitol. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Influence of maternal infection on offspring immune response in murine larval toxocariasis. Reiterová, K., Tomasovicová, O., Dubinský, P. Parasite Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. Specificity of Toxocara ELISA in tropical populations. Lynch, N.R., Wilkes, L.K., Hodgen, A.N., Turner, K.J. Parasite Immunol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. A paper radioimmunosorbent test (PRIST) for the detection of larva-specific antibodies to Toxocara canis in human sera. Smith, H.V., Quinn, R., Bruce, R.G., Girdwood, R.W. J. Immunol. Methods (1980) [Pubmed]
  35. In vitro translation of mRNA from Toxocara canis larvae. Sugane, K., Irving, D.O., Howell, M.J., Nicholas, W.L. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  36. Association of autoantibodies against small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) with symptomatic Toxocara canis infestation. Obwaller, A., Duchêne, M., Walochnik, J., Wiedermann, G., Auer, H., Aspöck, H. Parasite Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Epidemiology of human toxocariasis in La Réunion. Magnaval, J.F., Michault, A., Calon, N., Charlet, J.P. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1994) [Pubmed]
 
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