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Disease relevance of Yin-Yang

  • In addition, a mutation in the Cdk4 protein has been described in patients with familial melanoma (Wolfel, T., Hauer, M., Schneider, J., Serrano, M., Wolfel, C., et al. (1995) Science 269, 1281-1284; Zuo, L., Weger, J., Yang, Q., Goldstein, A. M., Tucker, M. A., et al. (1996) Nat. Genet. 12, 97-99) [1].
  • Although the role that HSP90 may play in protecting pigs with HCM from sudden death is still nuclear, the model itself may provide further insight into understanding the role of heat shock proteins in cardiac sudden death.-Lee, W.-C., Lin, K.-Y., Chiu, Y.-T., Lin, J.-H., Cheng, H.-C., Huang, H.-C., Yang, P.-C., Liu, S.-K., Mao, S [2].
  • Members of the MutL family contain a novel nucleotide binding motif near their amino terminus, and the Escherichia coli protein has been found to be a weak ATPase (Ban, C., and Yang, W. (1998) Cell 95, 541-552) [3].
  • Heparin lyase I has been purified from Flavobacterium heparinum and has been partially characterized (Yang, V. C., Linhardt, R. J., Berstein, H., Cooney, C. L., and Langer, R. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 1849-1857) [4].
  • We have developed a genetic "intrakine" strategy to inactivate the CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR-5), the principal coreceptor for macrophage (M)-tropic HIV-1 viruses (Yang et al, 1997) [5].

High impact information on Yin-Yang


Chemical compound and disease context of Yin-Yang

  • Previously, we have shown that expression of the Escherichia coli aroP P2 promoter is partially repressed by the TyrR protein alone and strongly repressed by the TyrR protein in the presence of the coeffector tyrosine or phenylalanine (P. Wang, J. Yang, and A. J. Pittard, J. Bacteriol. 179:4206-4212, 1997) [11].
  • These oligosaccharides present potential haptenes for the development of specific antibodies and confirm the partial structure proposed previously for the extracellular polysaccharide from Erwinia chrysanthemi Ech6 [Yang, B. Y.; Gray, J. S. S.; Montgomery, R. Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 1994, 16, 306-312] [12].
  • Our previous studies have found that high glucose does not induce cellular hypertrophy or expression of TGF-beta1 (transforming growth factor-beta1) in distal renal tubule cells [Yang, Guh, Yang, Lai, Tsai, Hung, Chang and Chuang (1998) J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 9, 182-193] [13].

Biological context of Yin-Yang

  • In this region, 6 of 13 novel genes have been characterized (X. Zhao, D. Wan, M. He, Yu. Ye, Yi. He, L. Han, M. Guo, Y. Huang, W. Qin, M-W. Wang, W. Chong, J. Chen, L. Zhang, N. Yang, B. Xu, M. Wu, L. Zuo, and J. Gu. A high frequency LOH region on chromosome 17p13.3 in human HCC with densely clustered genes identified, submitted for publication) [14].
  • An iroquois-related homeobox gene, mirror, was recently isolated and is localized close to the iroquois complex region (McNeil, H., Yang, C.-H., Brodsky, M., Ungos, J. and Simon, M. A. (1997) Genes and Development 11, 1073-1082; this study) [15].
  • Several structural features of the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 including phosphorylation of Ser-408 have been shown to be important in its endocytosis (Shin, J., Doyle, C., Yang, Z., Kappes, D., and Strominger, J.L. (1990) EMBO J. 9, 425-434) [16].
  • We recently showed that down-regulation of nucleolar protein RNA helicase II/Gualpha (RH-II/Gualpha or DDX21) in Xenopus oocytes inhibited processing of 20 S rRNA to 18 S and contributed to degradation of 28 S rRNA (Yang, H., Zhou, J., Ochs, R. L., Henning, D., Jin, R., and Valdez, B. C. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 38847-38859) [17].
  • MutS E694A, in which Glu-694 of the Walker B motif is substituted with alanine, is defective in hydrolysis of bound ATP and has been reported to support MutL-dependent activation of the MutH d(GATC) endonuclease in a trans DNA activation assay (Junop, M. S., Obmolova, G., Rausch, K., Hsieh, P., and Yang, W. (2001) Mol. Cell 7, 1-12) [18].

Anatomical context of Yin-Yang

  • 6,7-Dimethylesculetin, a compound present in Yin Chin, activates CAR in primary hepatocytes from both WT and humanized CAR mice and accelerates bilirubin clearance in vivo [10].
  • In this context, Yang Liu takes a cautious view of the concept that CTLA-4 is a negative regulator of T-cell activation [19].
  • Recent studies suggest a model of retinal development in which both the progenitor cells and the environment change over time (Cepko, C. L., Austin, C. P., Yang, X., Alexiades, M. and Ezzeddine, D. (1996). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 589-595) [20].
  • Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy resulting in a flare of systemic lupus erythematosus: comment on the article by Yang and Hamilton [21].
  • Following growth of HL-60 cells with [3H]MTX, used as a model folate compound, a large reduction in its intracellular polyglutamate pools was shown during maturation which quantitatively reflected the decline in FPGS activity as well as folate transport inward (Sirotnak, F.M., Jacobson, D.M., and Yang, C-H. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 11150-11156) [22].

Associations of Yin-Yang with chemical compounds

  • A Chinese herbal remedy for jaundice called Yin Zhi Huang is now shown to activate a liver receptor that enhances the clearance of bilirubin (see the related article beginning on page 137) [23].
  • Excess dietary salt induces a cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenase isoform in rat kidneys (Capdevila, J. H., S. Wei, J. Yang, A. Karara, H. R. Jacobson, J. R. Falck, F. P. Guengerich, and R. N. Dubois. 1992. J. Biol. Chem. 267:21720-21726) [24].
  • [Yu, B., Yang, Z., Li, J., Minakhina, S., Yang, M., Padgett, R. W., Steward, R. & Chen, X. (2005) Science 307, 932-935] has shown that plant miRNAs are modified at their 3' termini with a methyl group [25].
  • Here we report further evidence of this yin-yang relationship by demonstrating that O-GlcNAc transferase, the enzyme that adds O-GlcNAc to proteins, exists in stable and active complexes with the serine/threonine phosphatases PP1beta and PP1gamma, enzymes that remove phosphate from proteins [26].
  • The biosynthetic replacement of Met residues by selenomethionine (SeMet) facilitates the determination of three-dimensional structure by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (Yang, W., Hendrickson, W. A., Crouch, R.J., and Satow, Y. (1990) Science 249, 1398-1405) [27].

Gene context of Yin-Yang

  • In this paper we show by a variety of methods that the COOH-terminal tail domain of mouse BPAG1 interacts specifically with peripherin, but in contrast to a previous study (Yang, Y., J. Dowling, Q.C. Yu, P. Kouklis, D.W. Cleveland, and E. Fuchs. 1996. Cell. 86:655-665), mouse BPAG1 fails to associate with full-length NFTPs [28].
  • The Yin-Yang of TCF/beta-catenin signaling [29].
  • We recently cloned the human transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) gene, which encodes a second receptor for transferrin (Kawabata, H., Yang, R., Hirama, T., Vuong, P. T., Kawano, S., Gombart, A. F., and Koeffler, H. P. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 20826-20832) [30].
  • In many contexts ERbeta appears to antagonize the actions of ERalpha (yin/yang relationship) although there also exist genes that are specifically regulated by one of the two receptors [31].
  • A previous report suggested that neurons differentiate prematurely in PS1-/- brain [M. Handler, X. Yang, J. Shen, Presenilin-1 regulates neuronal differentiation during neurogenesis, Development 127 (2000) 2593-2606] [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Yin-Yang

  • Southern blot analysis of total genomic DNA argues against the proposed two-gene model for the ALDH3 isozymes (Yin, S.-J., Cheng, T.-C., Chang, C.-P., Chen, Y.-J., Chao, Y.-C., Tang, H.-S., Chang, T.-M., and Wu, C.-W. (1988) Biochem. Genet. 26, 343-360) [33].
  • In a retrospective study of two patients who developed recurrent prostate cancer, serum PSA values increased above the 0.1 microgram/L detection limit 175 and 581 days before increasing above the 0.3 microgram/L detection limit of the standard Yang assay [34].
  • We describe a modification of the Yang Pros-check radioimmunoassay for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) that increases the analytical sensitivity of the assay approximately threefold (from a working range of 0.3-50 to 0.1-1.2 micrograms/L) [34].
  • Seventeen patients had a detectable serum PSA (2.40 +/- 2.1 ng/mL; range, 0.5 to 10) by the Yang polyclonal assay 2 to 71 months after radical prostatectomy for P2N0 (2 patients) or P3N0 (15 patients) prostate cancer [35].
  • Oral administration of Yin Zhi Huang (YZH) daily for 3 days in rabbits accelerated plasma clearance of infused unconjugated bilirubin [36].


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  2. Substantial decrease of heat shock protein 90 in ventricular tissues of two sudden-death pigs with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Lee, W.C., Lin, K.Y., Chiu, Y.T., Lin, J.H., Cheng, H.C., Huang, H.C., Yang, P.C., Liu, S.K., Mao, S.J. FASEB J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. The MutL ATPase is required for mismatch repair. Spampinato, C., Modrich, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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  5. Anti-HIV type 1 activity of wild-type and functional defective RANTES intrakine in primary human lymphocytes. Yang, A.G., Zhang, X., Torti, F., Chen, S.Y. Hum. Gene Ther. (1998) [Pubmed]
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  9. The Drosophila Polycomb group gene pleiohomeotic encodes a DNA binding protein with homology to the transcription factor YY1. Brown, J.L., Mucci, D., Whiteley, M., Dirksen, M.L., Kassis, J.A. Mol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. A traditional herbal medicine enhances bilirubin clearance by activating the nuclear receptor CAR. Huang, W., Zhang, J., Moore, D.D. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Mechanism of repression of the aroP P2 promoter by the TyrR protein of Escherichia coli. Yang, J., Wang, P., Pittard, A.J. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Pyruvated galactose and oligosaccharides from Erwinia chrysanthemi Ech6 extracellular polysaccharide. Yang, B.Y., Brand, J., Montgomery, R. Carbohydr. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Thrombospondin-1 mediates distal tubule hypertrophy induced by glycated albumin. Yang, Y.L., Chuang, L.Y., Guh, J.Y., Liu, S.F., Hung, M.Y., Liao, T.N., Huang, Y.L. Biochem. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
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  15. mirror, a Drosophila homeobox gene in the Iroquois complex, is required for sensory organ and alula formation. Kehl, B.T., Cho, K.O., Choi, K.W. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
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  17. Silencing of RNA helicase II/Gualpha inhibits mammalian ribosomal RNA production. Henning, D., So, R.B., Jin, R., Lau, L.F., Valdez, B.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Hydrolytically deficient MutS E694A is defective in the MutL-dependent activation of MutH and in the mismatch-dependent assembly of the MutS.MutL.heteroduplex complex. Baitinger, C., Burdett, V., Modrich, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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  21. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy resulting in a flare of systemic lupus erythematosus: comment on the article by Yang and Hamilton. Gottenberg, J.E., Roux, S., Desmoulins, F., Clerc, D., Mariette, X. Arthritis Rheum. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Rapid decline in folylpolyglutamate synthetase activity and gene expression during maturation of HL-60 cells. Nature of the effect, impact on folate compound polyglutamate pools, and evidence for programmed down-regulation during maturation. Egan, M.G., Sirlin, S., Rumberger, B.G., Garrow, T.A., Shane, B., Sirotnak, F.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
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  30. Transferrin receptor 2-alpha supports cell growth both in iron-chelated cultured cells and in vivo. Kawabata, H., Germain, R.S., Vuong, P.T., Nakamaki, T., Said, J.W., Koeffler, H.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
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  32. Neural progenitor cells do not differentiate prematurely in presenilin-1 null mutant mice. Wen, P.H., De Gasperi, R., Gama Sosa, M.A., Elder, G.A. Neurosci. Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Human stomach aldehyde dehydrogenase cDNA and genomic cloning, primary structure, and expression in Escherichia coli. Hsu, L.C., Chang, W.C., Shibuya, A., Yoshida, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Ultrasensitive radioimmunoassay of prostate-specific antigen. Graves, H.C., Wehner, N., Stamey, T.A. Clin. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
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