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MeSH Review

South Africa

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Disease relevance of South Africa


Psychiatry related information on South Africa


High impact information on South Africa

  • Rapid and recent origin of species richness in the Cape flora of South Africa [11].
  • Stable carbon isotope analysis of A. africanus from Makapansgat Limeworks, South Africa, demonstrates that this early hominid ate not only fruits and leaves but also large quantities of carbon-13-enriched foods such as grasses and sedges or animals that ate these plants, or both [12].
  • Clinical studies of 6- and 12-valent pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccines were carried out in controlled studies among novice gold miners in South Africa. In the studies 1,523 persons received pneumococcal vaccine, and 3,171 were included as controls [13].
  • Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the LDL receptor gene, is five times more frequent in the Afrikaner population of South Africa than it is in the population of the United States and Europe. It has been proposed that the high frequency is due to a founder effect [14].
  • FINDINGS: The large genetic change during 1995-99 in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in both the health facility and the wider community surveys, was at the dhps locus, apparently because resistance at dhfr was established before 1995 [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of South Africa


Biological context of South Africa


Anatomical context of South Africa

  • Lactate and glycerol release from the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese urban women from South Africa; important metabolic implications [26].
  • Erythromycin-resistant pneumococci have been isolated in South Africa since 1978; however, from 1987 to 1996, resistance to macrolides was only detected in 270 (2.7%) of 9,868 blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pneumococcal isolates, most of which were obtained from the public sector [27].
  • ESR measurements were made on ten enamel subsamples from six teeth recovered in layers 4-5, 6, 10, and 12 in the site of Die Kelders Cave 1, South Africa. The teeth (enamel and dentine) contained significant concentrations of uranium and therefore the U uptake model has a large influence on the computed ages [28].
  • CONCLUSION: HIV is commonly associated with GBS in South Africa. The ICU outcome in patients with HIV-associated GBS is similar to HIV-seronegative patients, particularly if the CD4 T-lymphocyte count is greater than 200 x 106 cells/L at admission [29].
  • During the excavation of isolated graves along the north shore of the Orange River in the Cape Province of South Africa, a skeleton was uncovered that showed two large calcareous deposits near the lumbar region of the vertebral column [30].

Associations of South Africa with chemical compounds

  • METHODS: We prospectively assessed infant-feeding practices of 549 HIV-1-infected women who were part of a vitamin A intervention trial in Durban, South Africa. The proportions of HIV-1-infected infants at 3 months (estimated by use of Kaplan-Meier life tables) were compared in the three different feeding groups [2].
  • AIDS activists force attention to fluconazole in South Africa [31].
  • METHODS: In hospitals in Argentina, China, Egypt, Ireland, Nigeria, South Africa, Switzerland, Thailand, and Vietnam, we randomly assigned women about to deliver vaginally to receive 600 microg misoprostol orally or 10 IU oxytocin intravenously or intramuscularly, according to routine practice, plus corresponding identical placebos [32].
  • Coding sequence mutations in EtaA were found in 11 of 11 multidrug-resistant MTb patient isolates from Cape Town, South Africa. These isolates showed broad cross-resistance to thiocarbonyl containing drugs including ETA, thiacetazone, and thiocarlide [33].
  • Phase 1 trial of nonoxynol-9 film among sex workers in South Africa [34].

Gene context of South Africa


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of South Africa

  • STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in the Western Cape region of South Africa. A face-to-face interview that ascertained experience with requests from patients for STI treatment, current STI treatment practices, and willingness to provide syndromic STI treatment was administered to head pharmacists [40].
  • 125I brachytherapy for tumors in and around the eye was pioneered by Sealy in Cape Town, South Africa, in 1974 [41].
  • METHODS: As part of a population-based glaucoma survey, gonioscopy was performed on 987 (82.7%) of 1194 inhabitants of the village of Mamre, near Cape Town, South Africa, who were 40 years of age or older [42].
  • DNA prepared from 45 human and 21 animal strains isolated between 1984 and 1997, including eight isolated in other European countries, the USA, Trinidad, and South Africa and resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides, spectinomycin, tetracyclines (R-type ACSSuSpT) were examined for the presence of integrons by PCR [43].
  • METHODS: In a case-control study of colored and black women in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, 524 incident cases of clinically evident invasive cervical cancer (stages 1b-1V) were compared with 1541 controls, and with a subgroup of 254 HPV-positive controls [44].


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  2. Influence of infant-feeding patterns on early mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Durban, South Africa: a prospective cohort study. South African Vitamin A Study Group. Coutsoudis, A., Pillay, K., Spooner, E., Kuhn, L., Coovadia, H.M. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
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  11. Rapid and recent origin of species richness in the Cape flora of South Africa. Richardson, J.E., Weitz, F.M., Fay, M.F., Cronk, Q.C., Linder, H.P., Reeves, G., Chase, M.W. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Isotopic evidence for the diet of an early hominid, Australopithecus africanus. Sponheimer, M., Lee-Thorp, J.A. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Protective efficacy of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines. Smit, P., Oberholzer, D., Hayden-Smith, S., Koornhof, H.J., Hilleman, M.R. JAMA (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Two common low density lipoprotein receptor gene mutations cause familial hypercholesterolemia in Afrikaners. Leitersdorf, E., Van der Westhuyzen, D.R., Coetzee, G.A., Hobbs, H.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Antifolate antimalarial resistance in southeast Africa: a population-based analysis. Roper, C., Pearce, R., Bredenkamp, B., Gumede, J., Drakeley, C., Mosha, F., Chandramohan, D., Sharp, B. Lancet (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. High prevalence of oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from hospitalized patients in Asia-Pacific and South Africa: results from SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program, 1998-1999. Bell, J.M., Turnidge, J.D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Trimethoprim resistance in gram-negative bacteria isolated in South Africa. Wylie, B.A., Koornhof, H.J. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in black infants in South Africa. Steele, A.D., Alexander, J.J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in South Africa: evidence for two distinct virus groups. von Teichman, B.F., Thomson, G.R., Meredith, C.D., Nel, L.H. J. Gen. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Efficacy of Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine in South Africa. Wandel, G. Vaccine (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. mtDNA variation in the South African Kung and Khwe-and their genetic relationships to other African populations. Chen, Y.S., Olckers, A., Schurr, T.G., Kogelnik, A.M., Huoponen, K., Wallace, D.C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Partial characterization and assignment of the gene for protoporphyrinogen oxidase and variegate porphyria to human chromosome 1q23. Roberts, A.G., Whatley, S.D., Daniels, J., Holmans, P., Fenton, I., Owen, M.J., Thompson, P., Long, C., Elder, G.H. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. The pattern of p53 mutations in Burkitt's lymphoma differs from that of solid tumors. Bhatia, K.G., Gutiérrez, M.I., Huppi, K., Siwarski, D., Magrath, I.T. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Conservation of the cag pathogenicity island is associated with vacA alleles and gastroduodenal disease in South African Helicobacter pylori isolates. Kidd, M., Lastovica, A.J., Atherton, J.C., Louw, J.A. Gut (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification and characterization of persistent human erythrovirus infection in blood donor samples. Candotti, D., Etiz, N., Parsyan, A., Allain, J.P. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Lactate and glycerol release from the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese urban women from South Africa; important metabolic implications. van der Merwe, M.T., Crowther, N.J., Schlaphoff, G.P., Boyd, I.H., Gray, I.P., Joffe, B.I., Lönnroth, P.N. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Emergence of the M phenotype of erythromycin-resistant pneumococci in South Africa. Widdowson, C.A., Klugman, K.P. Emerging Infect. Dis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. ESR dating of the Die Kelders Cave 1 site, South Africa. Schwarcz, H.P., Rink, W.J. J. Hum. Evol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus on intensive care unit outcome of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Schleicher, G.K., Black, A., Mochan, A., Richards, G.A. Crit. Care Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. A probable case of prehistoric kidney stone disease from the northern Cape Province, South Africa. Morris, A.G., Rodgers, A.L. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. AIDS activists force attention to fluconazole in South Africa. Baleta, A. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. WHO multicentre randomised trial of misoprostol in the management of the third stage of labour. Gülmezoglu, A.M., Villar, J., Ngoc, N.T., Piaggio, G., Carroli, G., Adetoro, L., Abdel-Aleem, H., Cheng, L., Hofmeyr, G., Lumbiganon, P., Unger, C., Prendiville, W., Pinol, A., Elbourne, D., El-Refaey, H., Schulz, K. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Ethionamide activation and sensitivity in multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DeBarber, A.E., Mdluli, K., Bosman, M., Bekker, L.G., Barry, C.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Phase 1 trial of nonoxynol-9 film among sex workers in South Africa. Rustomjee, R., Abdool Karim, Q., Abdool Karim, S.S., Laga, M., Stein, Z. AIDS (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Variegate porphyria in Western Europe: identification of PPOX gene mutations in 104 families, extent of allelic heterogeneity, and absence of correlation between phenotype and type of mutation. Whatley, S.D., Puy, H., Morgan, R.R., Robreau, A.M., Roberts, A.G., Nordmann, Y., Elder, G.H., Deybach, J.C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. p53 and p16/CDKN2 gene mutations in esophageal tumors from a high-incidence area in South Africa. Gamieldien, W., Victor, T.C., Mugwanya, D., Stepien, A., Gelderblom, W.C., Marasas, W.F., Geiger, D.H., van Helden, P.D. Int. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  37. HLA associations with rheumatoid arthritis in African blacks. Mody, G.M., Hammond, M.G., Naidoo, P.D. J. Rheumatol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  38. Full-length genome analysis of HIV-1 subtype C utilizing CXCR4 and intersubtype recombinants isolated in South Africa. Papathanasopoulos, M.A., Cilliers, T., Morris, L., Mokili, J.L., Dowling, W., Birx, D.L., McCutchan, F.E. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (2002) [Pubmed]
  39. Cadherin/catenin complex appears to be intact in hepatocellular carcinomas from Australia and South Africa. Herath, N.I., Walsh, M.D., Kew, M.C., Young, J., Leggett, B.A., Macdonald, G.A. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  40. Provision of syndromic treatment of sexually transmitted infections by community pharmacists: a potentially underutilized HIV prevention strategy. Ward, K., Butler, N., Mugabo, P., Klausner, J., McFarland, W., Chen, S., Schwarcz, S. Sexually transmitted diseases. (2003) [Pubmed]
  41. Postenucleation orbits in retinoblastoma: treatment with 125I brachytherapy. Stannard, C., Sealy, R., Hering, E., Hough, J., Knowles, R., Lecuona, K., Reddi, V.B. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. The detection of post-traumatic angle recession by gonioscopy in a population-based glaucoma survey. Salmon, J.F., Mermoud, A., Ivey, A., Swanevelder, S.A., Hoffman, M. Ophthalmology (1994) [Pubmed]
  43. Molecular epidemiology of antibiotic resistance genes in multiresistant epidemic Salmonella typhimurium DT 104. Ridley, A., Threlfall, E.J. Microb. Drug Resist. (1998) [Pubmed]
  44. Risk of invasive cancer of the cervix in relation to the use of injectable progestogen contraceptives and combined estrogen/progestogen oral contraceptives (South Africa). Shapiro, S., Rosenberg, L., Hoffman, M., Kelly, J.P., Cooper, D.D., Carrara, H., Denny, L.E., du Toit, G., Allan, B.R., Stander, I.A., Williamson, A.L. Cancer Causes Control (2003) [Pubmed]
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