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MeSH Review

Mouth Mucosa

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Disease relevance of Mouth Mucosa

  • Fifteen of 33 (45%) squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck expressed p53, but none of four normal control patients (cancer-free nonsmokers) expressed detectable p53 in oral mucosa specimens [1].
  • These findings suggest that supplementation with the flavonoids diosmin and hesperidin, individually and in combination, is effective in inhibiting the development of oral neoplasms induced by 4-NQO, and such inhibition might be related to suppression of increased cell proliferation caused by 4-NQO in the oral mucosa [2].
  • Topical application of transforming growth factor beta 3 to the oral mucosa of the Syrian golden hamster prior to chemotherapy significantly reduced the incidence, severity, and duration of oral mucositis, reduced chemotherapy-associated weight loss, and increased survival [3].
  • Expression of EF along with hyperplasia was also observed in other squamous epithelia such as buccal mucosa, tongue and oesophagus [4].
  • The results showed that vascularity, measured by the MVV method using antibodies to either vWF or CD31, increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with disease progression from normal oral mucosa, through mild, moderate, and severe dysplasia to early and late carcinoma (76 paraffin-embedded tissues examined) [5].

Psychiatry related information on Mouth Mucosa

  • In this study, sensory and pain thresholds were compared to argon-, copper vapour-, Nd:YAG-, and CO2 laser stimulation on hairy skin and on oral mucosa [6].
  • AIMS: Although nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been used to aid smoking cessation for the last 20 years, little information exists on the effect of nicotine products on the oral mucosa, particularly with regard to the direct effect at the site of application [7].
  • The most common site of occurrence of SCC was the buccal mucosa (263/703 patients; 37.4%), both overall and in patients who chewed betel quid alone or in combination with cigarette smoking and/or alcohol consumption; the tongue was the most common site among patients without any oral habits (18/48 patients; 37.5%) [8].

High impact information on Mouth Mucosa


Chemical compound and disease context of Mouth Mucosa


Biological context of Mouth Mucosa


Anatomical context of Mouth Mucosa


Associations of Mouth Mucosa with chemical compounds

  • CONCLUSION: In contrast to the prestudy hypothesis that a chlorhexidine mouthwash might provide benefit for patients receiving radiation therapy to the oral mucosa, this study provides strong evidence suggesting that a chlorhexidine mouthwash is detrimental in this clinical situation [29].
  • Extracted DNA was 32P-postlabeled using the butanol enhancement method, and DNA adduct levels were quantified to compare the accuracy of adduct detection in buccal mucosa versus oral biopsies [30].
  • Results of our metabolism studies showed that curcumin significantly inhibited CYP1A1-mediated benzo(a)pyrene diol bioactivation in both oral SCC cells and intact oral mucosa [31].
  • Mechanisms of smokeless tobacco-induced oral mucosa inflammation: role of bradykinin [32].
  • Finally, substantial capacity for formaldehyde detoxification is shown from quantitative assessments of alcohol- and aldehyde-oxidizing activities including K:(m) determinations, indicating that ADH3 is the major enzyme involved in formaldehyde oxidation in oral mucosa [25].

Gene context of Mouth Mucosa

  • In this study, we investigated the effects of tobacco smoke on the expression of COX-2 in oral mucosa [33].
  • Recently, elevated levels of amphiregulin, a ligand of the EGFR, were found in the oral mucosa of smokers [34].
  • In sections including normal differentiated oral mucosa, the cells above the basal cell layer were positive for both TGF-alpha and EGF [35].
  • Hyperproliferation is also observed in the buccal mucosa and the tongue epithelia of E6/E7 mice, and p53 levels are markedly increased in these epithelia [36].
  • Immunoblotting was performed to compare Dsg1 and Dsg3 expression levels in extracts from epidermis and oral mucosa [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mouth Mucosa


  1. Activation of p53 gene expression in premalignant lesions during head and neck tumorigenesis. Shin, D.M., Kim, J., Ro, J.Y., Hittelman, J., Roth, J.A., Hong, W.K., Hittelman, W.N. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Chemoprevention of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced oral carcinogenesis in rats by flavonoids diosmin and hesperidin, each alone and in combination. Tanaka, T., Makita, H., Ohnishi, M., Mori, H., Satoh, K., Hara, A., Sumida, T., Fukutani, K., Tanaka, T., Ogawa, H. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Prevention of chemotherapy-induced ulcerative mucositis by transforming growth factor beta 3. Sonis, S.T., Lindquist, L., Van Vugt, A., Stewart, A.A., Stam, K., Qu, G.Y., Iwata, K.K., Haley, J.D. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of enhancing factor/phospholipase A2 in skin results in abnormal epidermis and increased sensitivity to chemical carcinogenesis. Mulherkar, R., Kirtane, B.M., Ramchandani, A., Mansukhani, N.P., Kannan, S., Naresh, K.N. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. The association between tumour progression and vascularity in the oral mucosa. Pazouki, S., Chisholm, D.M., Adi, M.M., Carmichael, G., Farquharson, M., Ogden, G.R., Schor, S.L., Schor, A.M. J. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Comparison of four laser types for experimental pain stimulation on oral mucosa and hairy skin. Svensson, P., Bjerring, P., Arendt-Nielsen, L., Nielsen, J.C., Kaaber, S. Lasers in surgery and medicine. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. The long-term effect of nicotine on the oral mucosa. Wallström, M., Sand, L., Nilsson, F., Hirsch, J.M. Addiction (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Primary oral squamous cell carcinoma: an analysis of 703 cases in southern Taiwan. Chen, Y.K., Huang, H.C., Lin, L.M., Lin, C.C. Oral Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Chemical injury of the oral mucosa from verapamil. Guttenberg, S.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Bioactivity of instant glucose. Failure of absorption through oral mucosa. Gunning, R.R., Garber, A.J. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. MLH1 germline epimutations as a factor in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Hitchins, M., Williams, R., Cheong, K., Halani, N., Lin, V.A., Packham, D., Ku, S., Buckle, A., Hawkins, N., Burn, J., Gallinger, S., Goldblatt, J., Kirk, J., Tomlinson, I., Scott, R., Spigelman, A., Suter, C., Martin, D., Suthers, G., Ward, R. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Introducing a null mutation in the mouse K6alpha and K6beta genes reveals their essential structural role in the oral mucosa. Wong, P., Colucci-Guyon, E., Takahashi, K., Gu, C., Babinet, C., Coulombe, P.A. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. The Delta Np63 alpha phosphoprotein binds the p21 and 14-3-3 sigma promoters in vivo and has transcriptional repressor activity that is reduced by Hay-Wells syndrome-derived mutations. Westfall, M.D., Mays, D.J., Sniezek, J.C., Pietenpol, J.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Autoantibody in mucous membrane pemphigoid binds to an intracellular epitope on human beta4 integrin and causes basement membrane zone separation in oral mucosa in an organ culture model. Bhol, K.C., Colon, J.E., Ahmed, A.R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Upregulation of immunoregulatory Src homology 2 molecule containing inositol phosphatase and mononuclear cell hyporesponsiveness in oral mucosa during chronic periodontitis. Muthukuru, M., Cutler, C.W. Infect. Immun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Edema in oral mucosa after LPS or cytokine exposure. Bletsa, A., Nedrebø, T., Heyeraas, K.J., Berggreen, E. J. Dent. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Reduction in oral mucosa micronuclei frequency following alpha-tocopherol treatment of oral leukoplakia. Benner, S.E., Wargovich, M.J., Lippman, S.M., Fisher, R., Velasco, M., Winn, R.J., Hong, W.K. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Carcinogenicity examination of betel quid. II. Effect of vitamin A deficiency on rats fed semipurified diet containing betel nut and calcium hydroxide. Tanaka, T., Mori, H., Fujii, M., Takahashi, M., Hirono, I. Nutrition and cancer. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Receptor-mediated tobacco toxicity: regulation of gene expression through alpha3beta2 nicotinic receptor in oral epithelial cells. Arredondo, J., Chernyavsky, A.I., Marubio, L.M., Beaudet, A.L., Jolkovsky, D.L., Pinkerton, K.E., Grando, S.A. Am. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Circadian expression of clock genes in human oral mucosa and skin: association with specific cell-cycle phases. Bjarnason, G.A., Jordan, R.C., Wood, P.A., Li, Q., Lincoln, D.W., Sothern, R.B., Hrushesky, W.J., Ben-David, Y. Am. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Cloning and characterization of the gene for a new epithelial beta-defensin. Genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and evidence for its constitutive expression. Zhang, G., Hiraiwa, H., Yasue, H., Wu, H., Ross, C.R., Troyer, D., Blecha, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. The microenvironment of human Peyer's patches inhibits the increase in CD38 expression associated with the germinal center reaction. Guilliano, M.J., Foxx-Orenstein, A.E., Lebman, D.A. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. A Phase I trial of the farnesyl protein transferase inhibitor R115777 in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin in patients with advanced cancer. Adjei, A.A., Croghan, G.A., Erlichman, C., Marks, R.S., Reid, J.M., Sloan, J.A., Pitot, H.C., Alberts, S.R., Goldberg, R.M., Hanson, L.J., Bruzek, L.M., Atherton, P., Thibault, A., Palmer, P.A., Kaufmann, S.H. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Collagenase-3 (matrix metalloproteinase-13) expression is induced in oral mucosal epithelium during chronic inflammation. Uitto, V.J., Airola, K., Vaalamo, M., Johansson, N., Putnins, E.E., Firth, J.D., Salonen, J., López-Otín, C., Saarialho-Kere, U., Kähäri, V.M. Am. J. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression of alcohol dehydrogenase 3 in tissue and cultured cells from human oral mucosa. Hedberg, J.J., Höög, J.O., Nilsson, J.A., Xi, Z., Elfwing, A., Grafström, R.C. Am. J. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Somatic mosaicism of CIAS1 in a patient with chronic infantile neurologic, cutaneous, articular syndrome. Saito, M., Fujisawa, A., Nishikomori, R., Kambe, N., Nakata-Hizume, M., Yoshimoto, M., Ohmori, K., Okafuji, I., Yoshioka, T., Kusunoki, T., Miyachi, Y., Heike, T., Nakahata, T. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. EPLIN, epithelial protein lost in neoplasm. Maul, R.S., Chang, D.D. Oncogene (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Cyclin D1 expression in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck and in oral mucosa in relation to proliferation and apoptosis. Kotelnikov, V.M., Coon, J.S., Mundle, S., Kelanic, S., LaFollette, S., Taylor S, I.V., Hutchinson, J., Panje, W., Caldarelli, D.D., Preisler, H.D. Clin. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Randomized trial of a chlorhexidine mouthwash for alleviation of radiation-induced mucositis. Foote, R.L., Loprinzi, C.L., Frank, A.R., O'Fallon, J.R., Gulavita, S., Tewfik, H.H., Ryan, M.A., Earle, J.M., Novotny, P. J. Clin. Oncol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  30. Development of a human biomonitoring assay using buccal mucosa: comparison of smoking-related DNA adducts in mucosa versus biopsies. Stone, J.G., Jones, N.J., McGregor, A.D., Waters, R. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Curcumin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor yet significantly inhibits (-)-benzo(a)pyrene-7R-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol bioactivation in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and oral mucosa. Rinaldi, A.L., Morse, M.A., Fields, H.W., Rothas, D.A., Pei, P., Rodrigo, K.A., Renner, R.J., Mallery, S.R. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Mechanisms of smokeless tobacco-induced oral mucosa inflammation: role of bradykinin. Gao, X.P., Vishwanatha, J.K., Conlon, J.M., Olopade, C.O., Rubinstein, I. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Levels of cyclooxygenase-2 are increased in the oral mucosa of smokers: evidence for the role of epidermal growth factor receptor and its ligands. Moraitis, D., Du, B., De Lorenzo, M.S., Boyle, J.O., Weksler, B.B., Cohen, E.G., Carew, J.F., Altorki, N.K., Kopelovich, L., Subbaramaiah, K., Dannenberg, A.J. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Tobacco smoke stimulates the transcription of amphiregulin in human oral epithelial cells: evidence of a cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-dependent mechanism. Du, B., Altorki, N.K., Kopelovich, L., Subbaramaiah, K., Dannenberg, A.J. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Immunoreactive transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas. Christensen, M.E., Therkildsen, M.H., Poulsen, S.S., Bretlau, P. J. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Suprabasal expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 oncoproteins in mouse epidermis alters expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins. Crish, J.F., Bone, F., Balasubramanian, S., Zaim, T.M., Wagner, T., Yun, J., Rorke, E.A., Eckert, R.L. Carcinogenesis (2000) [Pubmed]
  37. Lack of mucosal involvement in pemphigus foliaceus may be due to low expression of desmoglein 1. Shirakata, Y., Amagai, M., Hanakawa, Y., Nishikawa, T., Hashimoto, K. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Cyclin G2 dysregulation in human oral cancer. Kim, Y., Shintani, S., Kohno, Y., Zhang, R., Wong, D.T. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Cyclooxygenase-2 expression is up-regulated in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Chan, G., Boyle, J.O., Yang, E.K., Zhang, F., Sacks, P.G., Shah, J.P., Edelstein, D., Soslow, R.A., Koki, A.T., Woerner, B.M., Masferrer, J.L., Dannenberg, A.J. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  40. Immunologic localization of filaggrin in human oral epithelia and correlation with keratinization. Smith, S.A., Dale, B.A. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  41. Porcine epithelial beta-defensin 1 is expressed in the dorsal tongue at antimicrobial concentrations. Shi, J., Zhang, G., Wu, H., Ross, C., Blecha, F., Ganz, T. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
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