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MeSH Review

Space Flight

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Disease relevance of Space Flight


High impact information on Space Flight

  • Therapy of the most common spaceflight ailment-motion sickness-will be considered next month in Part 2 [6].
  • The well-defined osteoblast line, MC3T3-E1 was used to examine fibronectin (FN) mRNA levels, protein synthesis, and extracellular FN matrix accumulation after growth activation in spaceflight [7].
  • To determine whether altered FN matrix is a factor in causing these changes in spaceflight, quiescent osteoblasts were launched into microgravity and were then sera activated with and without a 1-gravity field [7].
  • Changes in bone ECM and osteoblast cell shape occur in spaceflight [7].
  • Investigations on Rhesus performed in Paris provided a useful database to evaluate the more complex results obtained in the Russian experiments with space flights, during which, according to the ECoG marker, some attentional disorders occurred [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Space Flight


Biological context of Space Flight


Anatomical context of Space Flight

  • The typical microbial inhabitants of the oral and nasal cavities of Apollo astronauts were identified before space flight and generally found to be similar to those previously reported for healthy male adults [19].
  • The adaptation of single fibers in medial gastrocnemius (MG), a fast-twitch extensor, and tibialis anterior (TA), a fast-twitch flexor, was studied after 14 days of spaceflight (COSMOS 2044) or hindlimb suspension [20].
  • Production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was not altered by space flight for the CD8+ cell subset, but there was a significant decrease in IFN-gamma production for the CD4+ T cell subset [21].
  • These data indicate that during spaceflight the perception of elbow extension is greater than actuality, and are consistent with the interpretation that microgravity induced a flexor bias in the estimation of the actual elbow joint position [22].
  • It has been reported that spaceflight conditions alter the immune system and resistance to infection [Belay T, Aviles H, Vance M, Fountain K, and Sonnenfeld G. J Allergy Clin Immunol 170: 262-268, 2002; Hankins WR and Ziegelschmid JF. In: Biomedical Results of Apollo. Washington, DC: NASA, 1975, p. 43-81. (NASA Spec. Rep. SP-368)] [23].

Associations of Space Flight with chemical compounds

  • Therefore, we used PKC inhibitors to determine if the inhibitory effects of spaceflight on TNF-mediated cytotoxicity involved the activation of PKC [24].
  • Spaceflight resulted in a dramatic decrease of liver GSH, glutathione disulfide, and total GSH contents (p < .01), which were accompanied by a lower gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (p < .05) [25].
  • Pyridinoline, free deoxypyridinoline, and N-telopeptide increased less than CTX during the short-term space flight [26].
  • We conclude that norepinephrine excretion during spaceflight is both mission and gender dependent [27].
  • Except for those minor alterations listed above, the aerobic and anaerobic bacterial components of the upper respiratory autoflora of Apollo astronauts was found to be stable after space flight of up to 295 h [19].

Gene context of Space Flight

  • Specifically, spaceflight resulted in decreases in mRNA levels for GAPDH (decreased in proximal metaphysis), osteocalcin (decreased in proximal metaphysis), osteonectin (decreased in proximal and distal metaphysis), and collagen (decreased in proximal and distal metaphysis) compared with ground controls [28].
  • After 16 days of spaceflight, tibialis anterior, plantaris, medial gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles were removed from the hindlimb musculature and examined for the expression of MyoD-family transcription factors such as MyoD, myogenin, and MRF4 [29].
  • Coinduction of GTP cyclohydrolase I and inducible NO synthase in rat osteoblasts during space flight: apoptotic and self-protective response [30]?
  • Spaceflight significantly decreased catalase, GSH reductase, and GSH sulfur-transferase activities in the liver (p < .05) [25].
  • Results indicate that mechanical stresses of vibration and low gravity do not up-regulate the mRNA for hsp70, although the gene encoding hsp27 is up-regulated by spaceflight but not by vibration [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Space Flight

  • The mean succinate dehydrogenase activity of neurons with cross-sectional areas between 1000 and 2000 microns2 was lower (between 7 and 10%) in both the spaceflight and the spaceflight plus recovery groups compared to the appropriate control groups [31].
  • After breeding was carried out in the three experimental groups (FLT, spaceflight; AGC, asynchronous ground control; VIV, vivarium ground control), specimens of the 25-day-old rats were excised and five left aortic nerves in each group were examined by electron microscopy [32].
  • Microgravity induces fluid shifts which can alter the cardiovascular responses of astronauts both during space flight and on return to Earth. The decrease in orthostatic tolerance in astronauts returning from a weightless environment can be modelled in ground-based studies using lower body negative pressure (LBNP) [33].
  • Active hexose correlated compound enhances the immune function of mice in the hindlimb-unloading model of spaceflight conditions [34].


  1. Evaluation of treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber as a countermeasure for weightlessness-induced bone loss: a bed rest study with identical twins. Smith, S.M., Davis-Street, J.E., Fesperman, J.V., Calkins, D.S., Bawa, M., Macias, B.R., Meyer, R.S., Hargens, A.R. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Transgene expression patterns indicate that spaceflight affects stress signal perception and transduction in arabidopsis. Paul, A.L., Daugherty, C.J., Bihn, E.A., Chapman, D.K., Norwood, K.L., Ferl, R.J. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Microgravity as a novel environmental signal affecting Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium virulence. Nickerson, C.A., Ott, C.M., Mister, S.J., Morrow, B.J., Burns-Keliher, L., Pierson, D.L. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Subnormal norepinephrine release relates to presyncope in astronauts after spaceflight. Fritsch-Yelle, J.M., Whitson, P.A., Bondar, R.L., Brown, T.E. J. Appl. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Mutation frequency of plasmid DNA and Escherichia coli following long-term space flight on Mir. Takahashi, A., Ohnishi, K., Yokota, A., Kumagai, T., Nakano, T., Ohnishi, T. J. Radiat. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Pharmacology in space. Part 1. Influence of adaptive changes on pharmacokinetics. Lathers, C.M., Charles, J.B., Bungo, M.W. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Osteoblast fibronectin mRNA, protein synthesis, and matrix are unchanged after exposure to microgravity. Hughes-Fulford, M., Gilbertson, V. FASEB J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. In-flight electrocorticograms compared to ground controls in behaving monkeys: differences in attentional states? Graille, C., Shlyck, G., Buser, P., Kozlovskaia, I., Rougeul-Buser, A. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of hypobaric conditions on ethylene evolution and growth of lettuce and wheat. He, C., Davies, F.T., Lacey, R.E., Drew, M.C., Brown, D.L. J. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Growth-rate periodicity of Streptomyces levoris during space flight. Rogers, T.D., Brower, M.E., Taylor, G.R. Life sciences and space research. (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Fludrocortisone does not prevent orthostatic hypotension in astronauts after spaceflight. Shi, S.J., South, D.A., Meck, J.V. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Responses of sympathoadrenal and renin angiotensin systems to stress stimuli in humans during real and simulated microgravity. Kvetnansky, R., Koska, J., Ksinantova, L., Noskov, V.B., Blazicek, P., Marko, M., Macho, L., Grigoriev, A.I., Vigas, M. Journal of gravitational physiology : a journal of the International Society for Gravitational Physiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of rotopositioning on the growth and maturation of mandibular bone in immobilized rhesus monkeys. Simmons, D.J., Parvin, C., Smith, K.C., France, P., Kazarian, L. Aviation, space, and environmental medicine. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of vibrational stress and spaceflight on regulation of heat shock proteins hsp70 and hsp27 in human lymphocytes (Jurkat). Cubano, L.A., Lewis, M.L. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. The effects of orbital spaceflight on bone histomorphometry and messenger ribonucleic acid levels for bone matrix proteins and skeletal signaling peptides in ovariectomized growing rats. Cavolina, J.M., Evans, G.L., Harris, S.A., Zhang, M., Westerlind, K.C., Turner, R.T. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Histomorphometric, physical, and mechanical effects of spaceflight and insulin-like growth factor-I on rat long bones. Bateman, T.A., Zimmerman, R.J., Ayers, R.A., Ferguson, V.L., Chapes, S.K., Simske, S.J. Bone (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Sympathetic nervous activity decreases during head-down bed rest but not during microgravity. Christensen, N.J., Heer, M., Ivanova, K., Norsk, P. J. Appl. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Analysis of deletion mutations of the rpsL gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae detected after long-term flight on the Russian space station Mir. Fukuda, T., Fukuda, K., Takahashi, A., Ohnishi, T., Nakano, T., Sato, M., Gunge, N. Mutat. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Autoflora in the upper respiratory tract of Apollo astronauts. Decelle, J.G., Taylor, G.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Adaptation of fibers in fast-twitch muscles of rats to spaceflight and hindlimb suspension. Jiang, B., Ohira, Y., Roy, R.R., Nguyen, Q., Ilyina-Kakueva, E.I., Oganov, V., Edgerton, V.R. J. Appl. Physiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Altered cytokine production by specific human peripheral blood cell subsets immediately following space flight. Crucian, B.E., Cubbage, M.L., Sams, C.F. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Flexor bias of joint position in humans during spaceflight. McCall, G.E., Goulet, C., Boorman, G.I., Roy, R.R., Edgerton, V.R. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Increased susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection under hindlimb-unloading conditions. Aviles, H., Belay, T., Fountain, K., Vance, M., Sonnenfeld, G. J. Appl. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Abrogation of TNF-mediated cytotoxicity by space flight involves protein kinase C. Woods, K.M., Chapes, S.K. Exp. Cell Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Spaceflight downregulates antioxidant defense systems in rat liver. Hollander, J., Gore, M., Fiebig, R., Mazzeo, R., Ohishi, S., Ohno, H., Ji, L.L. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Space flight is associated with rapid decreases of undercarboxylated osteocalcin and increases of markers of bone resorption without changes in their circadian variation: observations in two cosmonauts. Caillot-Augusseau, A., Vico, L., Heer, M., Voroviev, D., Souberbielle, J.C., Zitterman, A., Alexandre, C., Lafage-Proust, M.H. Clin. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. The catecholamine response to spaceflight: role of diet and gender. Stein, T.P., Wade, C.E. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Spaceflight has compartment- and gene-specific effects on mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins in rat femur. Evans, G.L., Morey-Holton, E., Turner, R.T. J. Appl. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Effects of microgravity on myogenic factor expressions during postnatal development of rat skeletal muscle. Inobe, M., Inobe, I., Adams, G.R., Baldwin, K.M., Takeda, S. J. Appl. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Coinduction of GTP cyclohydrolase I and inducible NO synthase in rat osteoblasts during space flight: apoptotic and self-protective response? Kumei, Y., Morita, S., Nakamura, H., Akiyama, H., Hirano, M., Shimokawa, H., Ohya, K. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of 14 days of spaceflight and nine days of recovery on cell body size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Ishihara, A., Ohira, Y., Roy, R.R., Nagaoka, S., Sekiguchi, C., Hinds, W.E., Edgerton, V.R. Neuroscience (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Spaceflight alters the fiber composition of the aortic nerve in the developing rat. Yamasaki, M., Shimizu, T., Katahira, K., Waki, H., Nagayama, T., O-Ishi, H., Katsuda, S., Miyake, M., Miyamoto, Y., Wago, H., Okouchi, T., Matsumoto, S. Neuroscience (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Simultaneous transcranial Doppler and arterial blood pressure response to lower body negative pressure. Bondar, R.L., Kassam, M.S., Stein, F., Dunphy, P.T., Riedesel, M.L. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Active hexose correlated compound enhances the immune function of mice in the hindlimb-unloading model of spaceflight conditions. Aviles, H., Belay, T., Vance, M., Sun, B., Sonnenfeld, G. J. Appl. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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