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MeSH Review

Algae, Red

 
 
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Disease relevance of Algae, Red

  • In cyanobacteria, red algae, and cryptophyceae, HO is a key enzyme in the synthesis of the chromophoric part of the photosynthetic antennae [1].
 

High impact information on Algae, Red

 

Chemical compound and disease context of Algae, Red

 

Biological context of Algae, Red

  • The deduced amino acid sequence of the thioredoxin gene from the red algae has the greatest similarity to type m thioredoxins, providing strong support for the hypothesis that type m thioredoxins in photosynthetic eukaryotes originated from an engulfed bacterial endosymbiont [8].
  • Differences compared to green chloroplast genomes suggest a large phylogenetic distance between red algae and green plants, while similarities in arrangement and sequence to chromophytic ATPase operons support a red algal origin of chlorophyll a/c-containing plastids or alternatively point to a common prokaryotic endosymbiont [9].
  • Possibly as a consequence of CFB-induced H2O2 peroxisomal production, the maximum concentration of H(2)O(2) in the seawater of red algae cultures was found to occur (120+/-17 min) after the addition of CFB, which was followed by a significant decrease in the photosynthetic activity of PSII after 24 h [10].
  • Plasma pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and tissue distribution in CD2F1 mice of halomon, an antitumor halogenated monoterpene isolated from the red algae Portieria hornemannii [11].
  • Carrageenan (CGN), a sulphated polygalactant extracted from red algae, induced antigen-specific suppression of secondary antibody response to SRBC [12].
 

Anatomical context of Algae, Red

  • The structural bases of the processive degradation of iota-carrageenan, a main cell wall polysaccharide of red algae [13].
  • Human osteoblasts were cultured on the surface of HA calcified from red algae (C GRAFT/Algipore), deproteinized bovine HA (Bio-Oss) and bovine HA carrying the cell binding peptide P-15 (Pep Gen P-15) [14].
 

Associations of Algae, Red with chemical compounds

  • Crystal structure of dodecameric vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase from the red algae Corallina officinalis [15].
  • Sulfated D-galactans occur on the red algae Botryocladia occidentalis as three fractions that differ in their sulfate content [16].
  • In both red algae and apicomplexan parasites, isoamylase and glucan-water dikinase sequences are proposed to explain the appearance of semicrystalline starch-like polymers [17].
  • We show Toxoplasma gondii amylopectin to be similar to the semicrystalline floridean starch accumulated by red algae [17].
  • Recent studies have indicated that the extra-plastidic starch synthesis in red algae proceeds via a UDP glucose-selective alpha-glucan synthase, in analogy with the cytosolic pathway of glycogen synthesis in other eukaryotes [18].
 

Gene context of Algae, Red

  • Chloroplast encoded thioredoxin genes in the red algae Porphyra yezoensis and Griffithsia pacifica: evolutionary implications [8].
  • In addition the genes for the small subunit of Rubisco (rbcS) from red algae show about 60% homology to rbcS genes from cryptophytes and chromophytes [19].
  • In the nongreen lineage, the haptophytes formed a sister group to the clade containing heterokont algae, red algae, and the cryptophyte Guillardia theta [20].
  • Novel primers were developed for red algae to PCR amplify and sequence the 5' cox1 'barcode' region and were used to assess three known species-complex questions: (i) Mazzaella species in the Northeast Pacific; (ii) species of the genera Dilsea and Neodilsea in the Northeast Pacific; and (iii) Asteromenia peltata from three oceans [21].
  • The existence of a protein phosphatase group shared by Viridiplantae and Apicomplexa, but not other eukaryotes, is in line with the theory of the origin of Apicomplexa by endosymbiosis of nonphotosynthetic eukaryotes with red algae [22].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Algae, Red

  • The characterization of the main composite sugars of commercial gelling red algae galactans (agarose, iota and kappa carrageenans) by methanolysis and separation of the methyl glycosides produced by high performance liquid chromatography is described [23].
  • They confirm the excellent properties of HA carrying the cell binding peptide P-15 and HA calcified from red algae as used in maxillofacial surgery procedures [14].

References

  1. The heme oxygenase gene (pbsA) in the red alga Rhodella violacea is discontinuous and transcriptionally activated during iron limitation. Richaud, C., Zabulon, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. The origin of red algae and the evolution of chloroplasts. Moreira, D., Le Guyader, H., Philippe, H. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Methyl chloride transferase: a carbocation route for biosynthesis of halometabolites. Wuosmaa, A.M., Hager, L.P. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. The PII signal transduction protein of Arabidopsis thaliana forms an arginine-regulated complex with plastid N-acetyl glutamate kinase. Chen, Y.M., Ferrar, T.S., Lohmeir-Vogel, E., Morrice, N., Mizuno, Y., Berenger, B., Ng, K.K., Muench, D.G., Moorhead, G.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Cytochrome c550 in the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus: study of redox mutants. Kirilovsky, D., Roncel, M., Boussac, A., Wilson, A., Zurita, J.L., Ducruet, J.M., Bottin, H., Sugiura, M., Ortega, J.M., Rutherford, A.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Discovery of the mammalian insulin release modulator, hepoxilin B3, from the tropical red algae Platysiphonia miniata and Cottoniella filamentosa. Moghaddam, M.F., Gerwick, W.H., Ballantine, D.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Crystal structure of dimeric heme oxygenase-2 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 in complex with heme. Sugishima, M., Hagiwara, Y., Zhang, X., Yoshida, T., Migita, C.T., Fukuyama, K. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Chloroplast encoded thioredoxin genes in the red algae Porphyra yezoensis and Griffithsia pacifica: evolutionary implications. Reynolds, A.E., Chesnick, J.M., Woolford, J., Cattolico, R.A. Plant Mol. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Organization of plastid-encoded ATPase genes and flanking regions including homologues of infB and tsf in the thermophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria. Kostrzewa, M., Zetsche, K. Plant Mol. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Temporal mismatch between induction of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase correlates with high H2O2 concentration in seawater from clofibrate-treated red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii. Barros, M.P., Granbom, M., Colepicolo, P., Pedersén, M. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Plasma pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and tissue distribution in CD2F1 mice of halomon, an antitumor halogenated monoterpene isolated from the red algae Portieria hornemannii. Egorin, M.J., Sentz, D.L., Rosen, D.M., Ballesteros, M.F., Kearns, C.M., Callery, P.S., Eiseman, J.L. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Modulation of murine anti-SRBC response by carrageenan: possible mechanism. Palanivel, V. Immunol. Lett. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. The structural bases of the processive degradation of iota-carrageenan, a main cell wall polysaccharide of red algae. Michel, G., Helbert, W., Kahn, R., Dideberg, O., Kloareg, B. J. Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Invitro study of adherent mandibular osteoblast-like cells on carrier materials. Turhani, D., Weissenböck, M., Watzinger, E., Yerit, K., Cvikl, B., Ewers, R., Thurnher, D. International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Crystal structure of dodecameric vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase from the red algae Corallina officinalis. Isupov, M.N., Dalby, A.R., Brindley, A.A., Izumi, Y., Tanabe, T., Murshudov, G.N., Littlechild, J.A. J. Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Dual effects of sulfated D-galactans from the red algae Botryocladia occidentalis preventing thrombosis and inducing platelet aggregation. Farias, W.R., Nazareth, R.A., Mourão, P.A. Thromb. Haemost. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Evolution of plant-like crystalline storage polysaccharide in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii argues for a red alga ancestry. Coppin, A., Varré, J.S., Lienard, L., Dauvillée, D., Guérardel, Y., Soyer-Gobillard, M.O., Buléon, A., Ball, S., Tomavo, S. J. Mol. Evol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. The unique features of starch metabolism in red algae. Viola, R., Nyvall, P., Pedersén, M. Proc. Biol. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Structure of the Rubisco operon from the unicellular red alga Cyanidium caldarium: evidence for a polyphyletic origin of the plastids. Valentin, K., Zetsche, K. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Phylogenetic analyses of the rbcL sequences from haptophytes and heterokont algae suggest their chloroplasts are unrelated. Daugbjerg, N., Andersen, R.A. Mol. Biol. Evol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Applying DNA barcoding to red macroalgae: a preliminary appraisal holds promise for future applications. Saunders, G.W. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Protein Ser/Thr phosphatases with kelch-like repeat domains. Kutuzov, M.A., Andreeva, A.V. Cell. Signal. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Assessment of methanolysis for the determination of composite sugars of gelling carrageenans and agarose by HPLC. Quemener, B., Lahaye, M., Metro, F. Carbohydr. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
 
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