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MeSH Review

Carotid Sinus

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Disease relevance of Carotid Sinus


High impact information on Carotid Sinus


Chemical compound and disease context of Carotid Sinus

  • Digoxin and ASI-222 were infused i.v. at rates which produced cardiac arrhythmias in about 100 min in dogs either: 1) with intact nerves, 2) pretreated with atropine, 3) without reflex receptors (without vagus and carotid sinus nerves, 4) without cardiac sympathetic nerves and adrenals or 5) pretreated with metoprolol [10].
  • The present experiments were designed to measure and characterize direct hemodynamic effects of propranolol on vascularly isolated carotid sinuses. dl-Propranolol, when restricted to the isolated carotid sinuses, inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the reflex increases in heart rate and mean arterial pressure during carotid sinus hypotension [11].
  • Substance P immunoreactivity in type I cells was dramatically attenuated by hypoxia in both intact and chronic carotid sinus nerve-denervated preparations, but this effect was reduced following chronic sympathectomy [12].
  • Denervation and retrograde tracing experiments have revealed that these fibers arise from NOS-immunoreactive and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) diaphorase-positive neuronal cell bodies located in the petrosal ganglion and the carotid body, and dispersed along the glossopharyngeal and carotid sinus nerves (CSN) [13].
  • Studies on the site of action revealed that nimodipine (0.3 and 1.0 micrograms/kg/min i.v. at 20 min) attenuated the reflex vagal bradycardia evoked by pressure elevations in the isolated carotid sinus, but did not change the reflex responses elicited by electrical stimulation of afferent fibers in the carotid sinus nerve [14].

Biological context of Carotid Sinus


Anatomical context of Carotid Sinus


Associations of Carotid Sinus with chemical compounds

  • Junctional diastolic slopes were recorded in 11 of 15 patients (73.3%) with junctional rhythm that occurred spontaneously, after intravenous administration of atropine (1 mg), or during carotid sinus massage [24].
  • This dose of ouabain had no effect on pressure-discharge relations or carotid sinus diameters in normal dogs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[25]
  • NP was applied during sustained PE infusion to eliminate the increase in transmural carotid sinus pressure and thus remove CBR activation, thereby causing ABR stimulation alone [15].
  • Static and pulsatile pressure were applied to the isolated carotid sinus of dogs anesthetized with chloralose [26].
  • Baroreceptor activity was recorded from the vascularly isolated carotid sinus of rabbits anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital [27].

Gene context of Carotid Sinus


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Carotid Sinus


  1. Alpha-methyldopa and carotid-sinus hypersensitivity. Morley, C.A., Perrins, E.J., Sutton, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  2. Carotid sinus reflex coronary vasoconstriction during controlled myocardial oxygen metabolism in the dog. Powell, J.R., Feigl, E.O. Circ. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. Carotid sinus reflex control of coronary blood flow in human subjects. Volpe, M., Trimarco, B., Cuocolo, A., Vigorito, C., Cicala, M., Ricciardelli, B., Condorelli, M. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Baroreflex sensitivity measured by the phenylephrine pressor test in patients with carotid sinus and sick sinus syndromes. Morley, C.A., Dehn, T.C., Perrins, E.J., Chan, S.L., Sutton, R. Cardiovasc. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Restoration of hypoxic respiratory responses in the awake rat after carotid body denervation by sinus nerve section. Martin-Body, R.L., Robson, G.J., Sinclair, J.D. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Alpha-methyldopa and carotid-sinus hypersensitivity. Alfino, P.A., Thanavaro, S., Kleiger, R.E., Zeffren, B.F., Aronson, T.A., Ruffy, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Mechanism of decreased baroreceptor activity in chronic hypertensive rabbits. Role of endogenous prostanoids. Xie, P.L., Chapleau, M.W., McDowell, T.S., Hajduczok, G., Abboud, F.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Timolol, carotid sinus hypersensitivity, and elderly patients. Mulcahy, R., Allcock, L., O'Shea, D. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Arterial baroreflex control of renal hemodynamics in humans. van Tilborg, K.A., Rabelink, T.J., van Rijn, H.J., Boomsma, F., Koomans, H.A. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Effect of an aminocardenolide and digoxin upon atrioventricular refractory period in the dog. Caldwell, R.W., Nash, C.B. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Alteration of the baroreceptor reflex by an effect of propranolol on the isolated carotid sinus. Schultz, H.D., Zehr, J.E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1981) [Pubmed]
  12. Changes in tyrosine hydroxylase and substance P immunoreactivity in the cat carotid body following chronic hypoxia and denervation. Wang, Z.Z., Dinger, B., Fidone, S.J., Stensaas, L.J. Neuroscience (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Neurons synthesizing nitric oxide innervate the mammalian carotid body. Wang, Z.Z., Bredt, D.S., Fidone, S.J., Stensaas, L.J. J. Comp. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Comparison of calcium channel inhibitors on vagal heart rate responses elicited by arterial baroreceptor reflexes in anesthetized dogs. Taylor, D.G., Kowalski, T.E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Arterial baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity during elevation of blood pressure in normal man: dominance of aortic baroreflexes. Sanders, J.S., Ferguson, D.W., Mark, A.L. Circulation (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. The role of vasopressin and the sympathetic nervous system in the cardiovascular response to vagal cold block in the conscious dog. Hasser, E.M., Haywood, J.R., Johnson, A.K., Bishop, V.S. Circ. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. Interaction of canine carotid sinus and aortic arch baroreflexes in the control of total peripheral resistance. Brunner, M.J., Greene, A.S., Kallman, C.H., Shoukas, A.A. Circ. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex control and epinephrine. Influence on capacitive and resistive properties of the total pulmonary vascular bed of the dog. Shoukas, A.A. Circ. Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Modulation of an idioventricular rhythm by vagal tone. Waxman, M.B., Cupps, C.L., Cameron, D.A. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. Low-pressure-sensitive baroreceptor fibers recorded from rabbit carotid sinus nerves. Qu, L., Stuesse, S.L. Circ. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Lesions of epinephrine neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla abolish the vasodepressor components of baroreflex and cardiopulmonary reflex. Granata, A.R., Ruggiero, D.A., Park, D.H., Joh, T.H., Reis, D.J. Hypertension (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Carotid baroreceptor function in dogs with chronic norepinephrine infusion. Wang, J., Ochoa, M., Patel, M.B., Zucker, I.H., Loud, A.V., Zeballos, G.A., Hintze, T.H. Hypertension (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Activated endothelial cells in culture suppress baroreceptors in the carotid sinus of dog. Chapleau, M.W., Hajduczok, G., Shasby, D.M., Abboud, F.M. Hypertension (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Recording of diastolic slope with catheters during junctional rhythm in humans. Hariman, R.J., Gomes, J.A., El-Sherif, N. Circulation (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. Carotid sinus baroreceptor sensitivity in experimental heart failure. Wang, W., Chen, J.S., Zucker, I.H. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Contrasting effects of static and pulsatile pressure on carotid baroreceptor activity in dogs. Chapleau, M.W., Abboud, F.M. Circ. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Aggregating human platelets in carotid sinus of rabbits decrease sensitivity of baroreceptors. Li, Z., Abboud, F.M., Chapleau, M.W. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Angiotensin peptides as neurotransmitters/neuromodulators in the dorsomedial medulla. Diz, D.I., Jessup, J.A., Westwood, B.M., Bosch, S.M., Vinsant, S., Gallagher, P.E., Averill, D.B. Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Parvalbumin and calbindin D-28k in vagal and glossopharyngeal sensory neurons of the rat. Ichikawa, H., Helke, C.J. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine3-antagonist, GR38032F, on the 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced increase in carotid sinus nerve activity in rats. Yoshioka, M. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1989) [Pubmed]
  31. Parapharyngeal space lesions syncope-syndrome. A newly proposed reflexogenic cardiovascular syndrome. Cicogna, R., Bonomi, F.G., Curnis, A., Mascioli, G., Bollati, A., Visioli, O., Rossi, L. Eur. Heart J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Cardiovascular baroreceptor control during angiotensin-induced acute hypertension in the dog. Bagshaw, R.J., Cox, R.H. J. Hypertens. (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. Anandamide induces cardiovascular and respiratory reflexes via vasosensory nerves in the anaesthetized rat. Smith, P.J., McQueen, D.S. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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