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MeSH Review

Apocrine Glands

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Disease relevance of Apocrine Glands


High impact information on Apocrine Glands


Biological context of Apocrine Glands


Anatomical context of Apocrine Glands

  • Normal apocrine glands were stained with all three antibodies, while eccrine glands were positive only for GCDFP-15, and other portions of normal skin were not stained with any of the antibodies used [11].
  • In normal skin, AR was consistently localized in seboblasts and in some differentiated sebocytes, and variable expression was seen in luminal epithelial cells of eccrine and apocrine glands in the secretory portion [12].
  • In sebaceous glands, only the peripheral layer of cells showed immunological activity for cathepsin B. In apocrine glands, granules containing remnants of cristae were more intensively labeled than those lacking cristae which supports the assumption that both granules are derived from mitochondria by acquiring lysosomal enzymes [13].
  • In addition to expression in breast tissue, human milk fat globulin (HMFG) is expressed in the normal apocrine glands and tumours with apocrine differentiation [14].

Associations of Apocrine Glands with chemical compounds

  • Analysis of the secretion of the human apocrine gland has shown the presence of dehydroepiandrosterone and androsterone sulfates, two androgen steroids previously identified in axillary sweat [15].
  • In the secretory portion of the apocrine gland, luminal membrane and apocrine extrusions of various sizes and stages at the apices of the secretory cells exhibited positive reactions [16].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Male and female subjects appear to have the same glycoprotein carriers for (E)-3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid localized to the apocrine glands [17].
  • High levels of 5alpha-reductase activity have been detected in human apocrine glands, and the concentration of dihydrotestosterone has been found to be higher than that of testosterone in the nuclear fraction of the skin of patients who suffer from excessive or abnormal odour derived from apocrine sweat (osmidrosis) [18].
  • METHODS: After single transverse incision in the center of one axilla, undermining was performed from the incision edges to make a wide subcutaneous tunnel and then apocrine glands and subcutaneous fats were vaporized with a CO2 laser [19].

Gene context of Apocrine Glands


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Apocrine Glands


  1. Immunohistochemistry of a gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP-15) of the breast. A marker of apocrine epithelium and breast carcinomas with apocrine features. Mazoujian, G., Pinkus, G.S., Davis, S., Haagensen, D.E. Am. J. Pathol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Androgen metabolism by isolated human axillary apocrine glands in hidradenitis suppurativa. Barth, J.H., Kealey, T. Br. J. Dermatol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Dermal cylindroma. Expression of intermediate filaments, epithelial and neuroectodermal antigens. Wollina, U., Rülke, D., Schaarschmidt, H. Histol. Histopathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of parathyroid hormone-related protein in canine apocrine adenocarcinoma of the anal sac. Rosol, T.J., Capen, C.C., Danks, J.A., Suva, L.J., Steinmeyer, C.L., Hayman, J., Ebeling, P.R., Martin, T.J. Vet. Pathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. A dominant repression domain in Tbx3 mediates transcriptional repression and cell immortalization: relevance to mutations in Tbx3 that cause ulnar-mammary syndrome. Carlson, H., Ota, S., Campbell, C.E., Hurlin, P.J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Colocalization of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II and mineralocorticoid receptor in human epithelia. Hirasawa, G., Sasano, H., Takahashi, K., Fukushima, K., Suzuki, T., Hiwatashi, N., Toyota, T., Krozowski, Z.S., Nagura, H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Glycoproteins of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family are expressed in sweat and sebaceous glands of human fetal and adult skin. Metze, D., Bhardwaj, R., Amann, U., Eades-Perner, A.M., Neumaier, M., Wagener, C., Jantscheff, P., Grunert, F., Luger, T.A. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. TGF-alpha is widely expressed in differentiated as well as hyperproliferative skin epithelium. Finzi, E., Harkins, R., Horn, T. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential expression of mucin genes in mammary and extramammary Paget's disease. Kuan, S.F., Montag, A.G., Hart, J., Krausz, T., Recant, W. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Carcinoembryonic antigen present in human eccrine sweat. Penneys, N.S., Nadji, M., McKinney, E.C. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. An immunohistochemical study of lysozyme, CD-15 (Leu M1), and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 in various skin tumors. Assessment of the specificity and sensitivity of markers of apocrine differentiation. Ansai, S., Koseki, S., Hozumi, Y., Kondo, S. The American Journal of dermatopathology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of androgen receptors in skin appendage tumors: an immunohistochemical study. Shikata, N., Kurokawa, I., Andachi, H., Tsubura, A. J. Cutan. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunelectron microscopic localization of cathepsin B in human exocrine glands. Fröhlich, E., Schaumburg-Lever, G., Klessen, C. J. Cutan. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Immunohistochemical analysis of human milk fat globulin expression in extramammary Paget's disease. Ohnishi, T., Watanabe, S. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Steroid analysis of human apocrine secretion. Labows, J.N., Preti, G., Hoelzle, E., Leyden, J., Kligman, A. Steroids (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Localization of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in human sweat glands: an immunohistochemical study using a monoclonal antibody. Yasuda, K., Shiozawa, M., Yamashita, S., Aiso, S. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification and immunohistochemical localization of protein precursors to human axillary odors in apocrine glands and secretions. Spielman, A.I., Sunavala, G., Harmony, J.A., Stuart, W.D., Leyden, J.J., Turner, G., Vowels, B.R., Lam, W.C., Yang, S., Preti, G. Archives of dermatology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Predominance of type I 5alpha-reductase in apocrine sweat glands of patients with excessive or abnormal odour derived from apocrine sweat (osmidrosis). Sato, T., Sonoda, T., Itami, S., Takayasu, S. Br. J. Dermatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Carbon dioxide laser treatment vs subcutaneous resection of axillary osmidrosis. Park, J.H., Cha, S.H., Park, S.D. Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Expression of mucin core proteins in extramammary Paget's disease. Yoshii, N., Kitajima, S., Yonezawa, S., Matsukita, S., Setoyama, M., Kanzaki, T. Pathol. Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Cylindroma expresses immunohistochemical markers linking it to eccrine coil. Penneys, N.S., Kaiser, M. J. Cutan. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Immunohistochemical localization of IL-1 alpha-, IL-1 beta-, IL-6- and TNF-alpha-like immunoreactivities in human apocrine glands. Ahmed, A.A., Nordlind, K., Schultzberg, M., Lidén, S. Arch. Dermatol. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Paget's disease of the skin. A unifying concept of histogenesis. Nadji, M., Morales, A.R., Girtanner, R.E., Ziegels-Weissman, J., Penneys, N.S. Cancer (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Apocrine adenocarcinoma of the eyelid with aggressive biological behavior: report of a case. Shintaku, M., Tsuta, K., Yoshida, H., Tsubura, A., Nakashima, Y., Noda, K. Pathol. Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Are sweat glands an alternate penetration pathway? Understanding the morphological complexity of the axillary sweat gland apparatus. Wilke, K., Wepf, R., Keil, F.J., Wittern, K.P., Wenck, H., Biel, S.S. Skin pharmacology and physiology. (2006) [Pubmed]
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