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MeSH Review

Respiratory Center

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Disease relevance of Respiratory Center


Psychiatry related information on Respiratory Center


High impact information on Respiratory Center

  • Respiratory center sensitivity to CO2 (rebreathing technique) was measured in 9 patients [7].
  • In summary, buspirone did not cause the depression of respiratory center chemosensitivity that was seen with diazepam and produced less depression of load compensation in normal subjects [8].
  • The effects of adenosine and its analogs on the function of the respiratory center were studied in the spontaneously active rhythmic slice of neonatal and juvenile mice (4-14 days old) [9].
  • The authors conclude that physostigmine can reverse the respiratory depressant effect of morphine and restore the sensitivity of the respiratory center of CO2, presumably by raising acetylcholine levels in the brain after these have been reduced by morphine [10].
  • The sensitivity of the respiratory center following a single 0.3 mg X kg-1 iv dose of droperidol was determined in eight healthy volunteers by using carbon dioxide (CO2) rebreathing and mouth occlusion pressure measurements (P0.1) [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Respiratory Center


Biological context of Respiratory Center


Anatomical context of Respiratory Center


Associations of Respiratory Center with chemical compounds

  • The lack of effect of high O2 on survival and the virtually identical pattern of gasping in mice dying in 97% N2 and air leads us to conclude that in mice that fail to autoresuscitate little or no O2 reaches the medullary respiratory centers [21].
  • Local applications of 5-HT (dual bath, microdialysis and microinjection experiments) revealed, however, that 5-HT acts at the medullary level and that its effects are not due to a diffuse action on all the neurons of the medullary respiratory centers but to a specific action focusing on structures located in the rostral ventro-lateral medulla [22].
  • We examined the effect of high pressure (10.1 MPa) on the sensitivity of the respiratory center to alterations in pH (range 5.8-7.6) which were obtained by varying either PCO2 or [HCO3-] in superfused Krebs solution [23].
  • We conclude that ketamine can suppress vasomotor and respiratory centers directly, and that the suppression is counterbalanced by afferent inputs from peripheral receptors [24].
  • We report that nicotine is responsible for both a blood-borne stimulation of the respiratory center and a direct effect on intrathoracic airway tone in dogs [25].

Gene context of Respiratory Center

  • The difference in the spatio-temporal pattern between Tlx3-/- and Pbx3-/- suggests different levels of functional disorder of the respiratory center [26].
  • Ca(L) channels were inhibited by the mGluR2/3 agonists. mGluR1/5 agonists accelerated and mGluR2/3 agonists suppressed the respiratory output, and correspondingly modified the hypoxic response of the respiratory center [27].
  • These observations suggest that the developing respiratory center is particularly sensitive to loss of necdin activity and may reflect abnormalities of respiratory rhythm-generating neurons or conditioning neuromodulatory drive [28].
  • Although cardiovascular and respiratory centers in the brain are located close to each other and are interconnected, the possible participation of orexin in respiratory regulation has not been fully documented [29].
  • Evidence was also obtained that fiber tracts from other areas of the brain cross midline just caudally to the obex and pass to the respiratory centers on which they apparently exert and excitatory action [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Respiratory Center


  1. Substance P receptors in brain stem respiratory centers of the rat: regulation of NK1 receptors by hypoxia. Mazzone, S.B., Hinrichsen, C.F., Geraghty, D.P. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Breathing patterns. 2. Diseased subjects. Tobin, M.J., Chadha, T.S., Jenouri, G., Birch, S.J., Gazeroglu, H.B., Sackner, M.A. Chest (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Kleine-Levin syndrome with periodic apnea during hypersomnic stages--E.E.G. study. Vardi, J., Flechter, S., Tupilsky, M., Rabey, J.M., Carasso, R., Streifler, M. J. Neural Transm. (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. Changes of neurotransmitters in the brainstem of patients with respiratory-pattern disorders during childhood. Saito, Y., Ito, M., Ozawa, Y., Obonai, T., Kobayashi, Y., Washizawa, K., Ohsone, Y., Takami, T., Oku, K., Takashima, S. Neuropediatrics. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Interaction between nalbuphine and alfentanil on intraocular pressure and pupil size of conscious rabbits. el Messiry, S., Chiou, G.C. Ophthalmic Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Analysis of its withdrawal. Masa Jiménez, J.F., Sánchez de Cos Escuin, J., Disdier Vicente, C., Hernández Valle, M., Fuentes Otero, F. Chest (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Respiratory disturbances during sleep in syringomyelia and syringobulbia. Nogués, M., Gené, R., Benarroch, E., Leiguarda, R., Calderón, C., Encabo, H. Neurology (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Differing effects of the anxiolytic agents buspirone and diazepam on control of breathing. Rapoport, D.M., Greenberg, H.E., Goldring, R.M. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. A1 adenosine receptors modulate respiratory activity of the neonatal mouse via the cAMP-mediated signaling pathway. Mironov, S.L., Langohr, K., Richter, D.W. J. Neurophysiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Physostigmine antagonizes morphine-induced respiratory depression in human subjects. Snir-Mor, I., Weinstock, M., Davidson, J.T., Bahar, M. Anesthesiology (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of droperidol on respiratory drive in humans. Prokocimer, P., Delavault, E., Rey, F., Lefevre, P., Mazze, R.I., Desmonts, J.M. Anesthesiology (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Influence of anxiolytic drugs (Prazepam and Diazepam) on respiratory center output and CO2 chemosensitivity in patients with lung diseases. Delpierre, S., Jammes, Y., Grimaud, C., Dugué, P., Arnaud, A., Charpin, J. Respiration; international review of thoracic diseases. (1981) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of theophylline in chronic obstructive lung disease. Umut, S., Gemicioğlu, B., Yildirim, N., Barlas, A., Ozüner, Z. International journal of clinical pharmacology, therapy, and toxicology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Inhibition of the activity of the respiratory and vasomotor centers by centrally administered 5-hydroxytryptamine in cats. Armijo, J.A., Mediavilla, A., Flórez, J. Rev. Esp. Fisiol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of thyroliberin on membrane potential and the pattern of spontaneous activity of neurons in the respiratory center in in vitro studies in rats. Inyushkin, A.N. Neurosci. Behav. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Potencies of doxapram and hypoxia in stimulating carotid-body chemoreceptors and ventilation in anesthetized cats. Mitchell, R.A., Herbert, D.A. Anesthesiology (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of global inspiratory muscle fatigue on ventilatory and respiratory muscle responses to CO2. Yan, S., Sliwinski, P., Gauthier, A.P., Lichros, I., Zakynthinos, S., Macklem, P.T. J. Appl. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Influence of autonomic neuropathy of different severities on the hypercapnic drive to breathing in diabetic patients. Tantucci, C., Scionti, L., Bottini, P., Dottorini, M.L., Puxeddu, E., Casucci, G., Sorbini, C.A. Chest (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of cocaine, cocaine metabolites and cocaine pyrolysis products on the hindbrain cardiac and respiratory centers of the rabbit. Erzouki, H.K., Allen, A.C., Newman, A.H., Goldberg, S.R., Schindler, C.W. Life Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Malfunction of respiratory-related neuronal activity in Na+, K+-ATPase alpha2 subunit-deficient mice is attributable to abnormal Cl- homeostasis in brainstem neurons. Ikeda, K., Onimaru, H., Yamada, J., Inoue, K., Ueno, S., Onaka, T., Toyoda, H., Arata, A., Ishikawa, T.O., Taketo, M.M., Fukuda, A., Kawakami, K. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Mechanism of failure of recovery from hypoxic apnea by gasping in 17- to 23-day-old mice. Jacobi, M.S., Gershan, W.M., Thach, B.T. J. Appl. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Serotonergic modulation of the respiratory rhythm generator at birth: an in vitro study in the rat. Di Pasquale, E., Morin, D., Monteau, R., Hilaire, G. Neurosci. Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. High pressure reduces pH sensitivity of respiratory center in isolated rat brainstem. Tarasiuk, A., Grossman, Y. Respiration physiology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. The effects of ketamine on renal sympathetic nerve activity and phrenic nerve activity in rabbits (with vagotomy) with and without afferent inputs from peripheral receptors. Sasao, J., Taneyama, C., Kohno, N., Goto, H. Anesth. Analg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Nicotine-induced respiratory effects of cigarette smoke in dogs. Hartiala, J.J., Mapp, C., Mitchell, R.A., Gold, W.M. J. Appl. Physiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. In vitro visualization of respiratory neuron activity in the newborn mouse ventral medulla. Onimaru, H., Arata, A., Arata, S., Shirasawa, S., Cleary, M.L. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Hypoxic modulation of L-type Ca(2+) channels in inspiratory brainstem neurones: intracellular signalling pathways and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Mironov, S.L., Richter, D.W. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Absence of Ndn, encoding the Prader-Willi syndrome-deleted gene necdin, results in congenital deficiency of central respiratory drive in neonatal mice. Ren, J., Lee, S., Pagliardini, S., Gérard, M., Stewart, C.L., Greer, J.J., Wevrick, R. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Respiratory and cardiovascular actions of orexin-A in mice. Zhang, W., Fukuda, Y., Kuwaki, T. Neurosci. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Localization of the medullary respiratory neurons in rats by microelectrode recording. Howard, B.R., Tabatabai, M. Journal of applied physiology. (1975) [Pubmed]
  31. Repetitive vocalizations evoked by electrical stimulation of avian brains. IV. Evoked and spontaneous activity in expiratory and inspiratory nerves and muscles of the chicken (Gallus gallus). Peek, F.W., Youngren, O.M., Phillips, R.E. Brain Behav. Evol. (1975) [Pubmed]
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