The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Double-stranded RNA inhibits beta-cell function and induces islet damage by stimulating beta-cell production of nitric oxide.

Viral infection has been implicated as a triggering event that may initiate beta-cell damage during the development of autoimmune diabetes. In this study, the effects of the viral replicative intermediate, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) (in the form of synthetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly IC)) on islet expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), production of nitric oxide, and islet function and viability were investigated. Treatment of rat islets with poly(IC) + interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) stimulates the time- and concentration-dependent expression of iNOS and production of nitrite by rat islets. iNOS expression and nitrite production by rat islets in response to poly(IC) + IFN-gamma correlate with an inhibition of insulin secretion and islet degeneration, effects that are prevented by the iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG). We have previously shown that poly(IC) + IFN-gamma activates resident macrophages, stimulating iNOS expression, nitric oxide production and interleukin-1 (IL-1) release. In addition, in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) + lipopolysaccharide, activated resident macrophages mediate beta-cell damage via intraislet IL-1 release followed by IL-1-induced iNOS expression by beta-cells. The inhibitory and destructive effects of poly(IC) + IFN-gamma, however, do not appear to require resident macrophages. Treatment of macrophage-depleted rat islets for 40 h with poly(IC) + IFN-gamma results in the expression of iNOS, production of nitrite, and inhibition of insulin secretion. The destructive effects of dsRNA + IFN-gamma on islets appear to be mediated by a direct interaction with beta-cells. Poly IC + IFN-gamma stimulates iNOS expression and inhibits insulin secretion by primary beta-cells purified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. In addition, AG prevents the inhibitory effects of poly(IC) + IFN-gamma on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by beta-cells. These results indicate that dsRNA + IFN-gamma interacts directly with beta-cells stimulating iNOS expression and inhibiting insulin secretion in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. These findings provide biochemical evidence for a novel mechanism by which viral infection may directly mediate the initial destruction of beta-cells during the development of autoimmune diabetes.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities