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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effects of the antiestrogen EM-800 ( SCH 57050) and cyclophosphamide alone and in combination on growth of human ZR-75-1 breast cancer xenografts in nude mice.

Human breast cancer proliferates as heterogeneous cell populations that exhibit different sensitivities to therapeutic agents. A logical approach to control these different cancer cell populations is the use of combined treatment with agents that block cell proliferation or induce apoptosis via different mechanisms. We therefore investigated the effect of treatment with the novel pure antiestrogen EM-800, alone or in combination with chemotherapy, on the growth of ZR-75-1 human breast tumors in nude mice, a well-recognized model of human breast cancer. Mice bearing estrone-releasing silastic implants as estrogenic stimulus received EM-800 or cyclophosphamide alone or in combination for 227 days. Cyclophosphamide (256 mg/kg/2 weeks) was administered by i.p. injection in 64 mg/kg fractions over 4 consecutive days with repetition of the cycle every 14 days. EM-800 was administered p.o. once daily at the maximally effective dose of 300 microg/mouse. After 227 days of treatment, average tumor size in mice receiving estrone alone was 192% higher than pretreatment. The average tumor size of mice treated with chemotherapy was reduced by 47%, whereas on the other hand, EM-800 caused a 81% decrease of the value of the same parameter. The combined treatment (EM-800 + cyclophosphamide), on the other hand, resulted in a 95% decrease in tumor size compared with control estrogen alone. In fact, EM-800 alone decreased tumor size to 55% of the value at the start of treatment, whereas the addition of cyclophosphamide to the antiestrogen further decreased tumor size to as low as 15% of the pretreatment value. The combination of EM-800 and cyclophosphamide resulted in 95% of complete or partial responses compared with 61 and 27% with EM-800 and cyclophosphamide alone, respectively. In fact, in the combination therapy group, only one tumor remained stable, while 17 regressed >50% and four disappeared. It is noteworthy that no tumor progressed with EM-800 alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide. The present data show, for the first time, that the addition of cyclophosphamide to a pure antiestrogen used at a maximal dose causes a more potent inhibition of human breast tumor growth, thus suggesting that combined treatment using a maximal dose of a pure antiestrogen and a chemotherapeutic agent(s), two classes of compounds having different mechanisms of action, could further improve breast cancer therapy above the results achieved with a potent and pure antiestrogen alone in estrogen-sensitive breast cancer.[1]


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