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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Loss of heterozygosity is detected at chromosomes 1p35-36 (NB), 3p25 (VHL), 16p13 (TSC2/PKD1), and 17p13 (TP53) in microdissected apocrine carcinomas of the breast.

INTRODUCTION: Apocrine carcinomas of the breast are an unusual special category of predominantly AR+, ER-, and PR- breast cancer, characterized by cells with abundant, eosinophilic cytoplasm and nuclei with often prominent nucleoli. To further investigate these lesions, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was evaluated at multiple chromosomal loci, including loci frequently mutated in breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five intraductal apocrine carcinomas, 11 invasive apocrine carcinomas, and six apocrine hyperplasias were retrieved from the files of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (Washington, DC) and Fairfax Hospital (Fairfax, VA). Cells from lesional as well as normal tissues were microdissected. LOH was performed at a number of chromosomal loci, including loci commonly altered in breast cancer: 1p35-36 (NB), 3p25.5 (VHL), 8p12 (D8S136), 9p21 (p16), 11p13 (D11S904), 11q13 ( INT-2 and PYGM), 16p13.3 (TSC2/PKD1 gene region), 17p13 (TP53), 17q13 (NM23), and 22q12 (D22S683). RESULTS: Among informative in situ and invasive apocrine carcinomas, LOH was present in 33% of 15 cases for 17p13 (TP53), as well as 36% of 14 cases for 3p25 (VHL), 30% of 10 cases for 1p35-36 (NB), and 27% of 11 cases for 16p13.3 (TSC2/PKD1). A higher frequency of LOH was noted among invasive apocrine carcinomas (30 to 50%) compared with in situ apocrine carcinomas (23 to 33%) at these loci. LOH was present simultaneously for TP53 and either VHL or NB in five cases. Infrequent (< or =12%) or absent LOH was detected at the remaining loci, including several loci commonly mutated in breast cancer (i.e., INT2, PYGM, and NM23). LOH was not detected in any of the six apocrine hyperplasias. CONCLUSION: An intermediate frequency of allelic loss was detected at multiple tumor suppressor gene loci, including 17p13 (TP53), as well as 1p35-336 (NB), 3p25 (VHL), and 16p13 (PKD1/ TSC2), in apocrine carcinomas of the breast, with a higher overall frequency of LOH noted among invasive tumors compared with in situ tumors. Aside from LOH at p53, LOH was infrequent or absent at several other loci commonly mutated in breast cancer. This preliminary molecular evidence supports immunohistochemical data that apocrine carcinomas of the breast may possess unique mechanisms of carcinogenesis, compared with ordinary ductal carcinomas. However, further study is needed to support this assertion and to determine if the LOH detected is truly etiologic or if it is the result of genetic progression.[1]


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