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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Human Na+/H+ exchanger genes : identification of polymorphisms by radiation hybrid mapping and analysis of linkage in end-stage renal disease.

The Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) are membrane-bound transporters that catalyze the electro-neutral movement of extracellular Na+ for intracellular H+. NHE genes play a critical role in pH homeostasis and cellular volume regulation and can be considered candidate genes for essential hypertension and renal disease. This study was performed to determine whether the NHE genes contributed to genetic susceptibility in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). To date, 5 isoforms of NHE have been cloned in mammals (NHE1 to NHE5). The complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences of NHE1 to NHE3 and NHE5 are known in humans. Because the chromosomal structure of the NHE genes is unknown, we used cDNA sequences to design polymerase chain reaction primers for use in radiation hybrid mapping. Radiation hybrid mapping of NHE genes identified nearby polymorphic markers for NHE1 to NHE3 (NHE1: D1S197, D1S2677; NHE2: D2S373, D2S1789; and NHE3: D5S678, D5S2005). We used these markers, and other previously identified polymorphic markers for NHE5, in linkage and association analyses of ESRD. The NHE1 to NHE3 and NHE5 loci did not demonstrate evidence for linkage to ESRD. However, NHE5 showed significant evidence for association (P</=1.0x10(-4)). The strongest evidence for association was observed with allele 6 of NHE5 (P</=0.001 to 0. 01). Allele 6 appeared to have a renoprotective effect, with a frequency of 0.15 in the control population and 0.06 to 0.09 in patients with ESRD. The combined approach of designing primers from cDNA and radiation hybrid mapping has proven successful in identifying polymorphisms for human genes of which only cDNA sequences were previously available. The NHE primers and associated polymorphic loci identified in this study can be used in genomic, linkage, and association analysis of NHE genes in future genetic studies of hypertension and renal failure. Given the allelic association, further evaluation of the role of NHE5 in ESRD susceptibility appears warranted.[1]


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