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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

U-69,593 microinjection in the infralimbic cortex reduces anxiety and enhances spontaneous alternation memory in mice.

The present report investigated the contributions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex to the control of spontaneous alternation/working memory and anxiety-related behaviour. In Experiment 1, we examined the effects of microinjections of the selective kappa(1) receptor agonist, U-69,593, in the infralimbic cortex (IL) of CD-1 mice on several ethologically-derived anxiety indices in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and defensive/withdrawal (D/W) anxiety in the open field, as well as on memory in the EPM transfer-latency (T-L) test and implicit spontaneous alternation memory (SAP) in the Y-maze. In week 1, pretreatment with one injection of vehicle, 1, 10 or 25 nmol/1.0 microliter U-69,593 in the IL dose-dependently prolonged T-L and produced a dose-dependent anxiolytic behavioural profile in the first EPM trial. Following a 24-h delay, the same mice were given a drug-free second trial in the EPM tests of T-L memory and anxiety. Whereas T-L memory was not disturbed, small but detectable carry-over effects were observed in trial-2 EPM behaviour relative to vehicle-treated animals. In week 2, the same groups of mice were again pretreated with one injection of the same doses of U-69,593 in the IL and given a D/W test in an open field, followed immediately by an 8-min SAP trial in the Y-maze. The smallest U-69,593 dose was anxiolytic in the D/W test, and SAP/working memory was dose-dependently enhanced in the Y-maze. In Experiment 2, we evaluated whether 0.5 microliter volume microinjections would produce comparable behavioural and carry-over effects in the IL of three new groups of CD-1 mice, in the event that the 1.0 microl volume injections used in Experiment 1 diffused beyond the IL and therefore may have confounded some effects. Experiment 2 procedures were carried out in the same manner as in Experiment 1, except the animals were tested in reverse order. Thus in week 1, SAP memory was tested in the Y-maze followed by D/W anxiety in the open field for half of the animals in each group, and the other half was tested in reverse order. In week 2, T/L memory and anxiety were tested in the EPM in 2 trials as described in Experiment 1. Pretreatment with one injection of vehicle, 10 or 25 nmol/0.5 microliter U-69,593 in the IL reduced D/W anxiety and enhanced SAP memory regardless of testing order in week 1. In week 2, the same groups of mice were again pretreated with one injection of the same doses of U-69,593 in 0.5 microliter volumes in the IL and tested in the EPM. In a similar fashion to Experiment 1, U-69,593 dose-dependently prolonged T/L and produced an anxiolytic behavioural profile in the first EPM trial. Following a 24-h delay, T/L recall memory was again not significantly influenced, but a robust anxiolytic behavioural profile was observed in the second drug-free anxiety trial in the EPM relative to vehicle-treated animals. Results are discussed relative to a) injection volumes and testing order, b) the possible influence kappa receptors may exert on neurochemical responsivity to anxiety-provoking environments in the IL area of the mPFC, c) the possibility that kappa-mediated anxiolysis from the IL in CD-1 mice results from interactions with neurochemical systems involved in the blunting of incoming anxiety-provoking information, d) evidence that SAP memory may be an implicit subtype of working memory, and e) the possibility that IL implicit working memory processes may modulate the induction and expression of anxiety-related behaviour.[1]


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