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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Site-directed mutagenesis of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid/alpha-ketoglutarate dioxygenase. Identification of residues involved in metallocenter formation and substrate binding.

2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)/alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) dioxygenase (TfdA) is an Fe(II)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the first step in degradation of the herbicide 2,4-D. The active site structures of a small number of enzymes within the alpha-KG-dependent dioxygenase superfamily have been characterized and shown to have a similar HXDX(50-70)HX(10)RXS arrangement of residues that make up the binding sites for Fe(II) and alpha-KG. TfdA does not have obvious homology to the dioxygenases containing the above motif but is related in sequence to eight other enzymes in the superfamily that form a distinct consensus sequence (HX(D/E)X(138-207) HX(10)R/K). Variants of TfdA were created to examine the roles of putative metal-binding residues and the functions of the other seven histidines in this protein. The H167A, H200A, H213A, H245A, and H262A forms of TfdA formed inclusion bodies when overproduced in Escherichia coli DH5alpha; however, these proteins were soluble when fused to the maltose-binding protein ( MBP). MBP-TfdA exhibited kinetic parameters similar to the native enzyme. The H8A and H235A variants were catalytically similar to wild-type TfdA. MBP-H213A and H216A TfdA have elevated K(m) values for 2,4-D, and the former showed a decreased k(cat), suggesting these residues may affect substrate binding or catalysis. The H113A, D115A, MBP-H167A, MBP-H200A, MBP-H245A and MBP-H262A variants of TfdA were inactive. Gel filtration analysis revealed that the latter two proteins were highly aggregated. The remaining four inactive variants were examined in their Cu(II)-substituted forms by EPR and electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopic methods. Changes in EPR spectra upon addition of substrates indicated that copper was present at the active site in the H113A and D115A variants. ESEEM analysis revealed that two histidines are bound equatorially to the copper in the D115A and MBP-H167A TfdA variants. The experimental data and sequence analysis lead us to conclude that His-113, Asp-115, and His-262 are likely metal ligands in TfdA and that His-213 may aid in catalysis or binding of 2,4-D.[1]


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