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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Molecular characterization of actin genes from homobasidiomycetes: two different actin genes from Schizophyllum commune and Suillus bovinus.

The actin-encoding genes Scact1 and Scact2 of the homobasidiomycete Schizophyllum commune are the first actin genes isolated from higher filamentous fungi. Their isolation shows that homobasidiomycetes have two actin encoding genes instead of one typical to yeasts and filamentous ascomycetes. This result was further confirmed by cloning two actin encoding genes, Sbact1 and Sbact2, from another homobasidiomycete Suillus bovinus. The comparison of the genomic and cDNA sequences of the actin genes showed that Scact1 and Scact2 genes of S. commune contain seven introns, five of which are at the same position in the two genes while S. bovinus actin genes contain nine similarly positioned introns. In the four genes, five intron positions are shared, which indicates a close relationship between the actin encoding genes from S. commune and S. bovinus. Northern hybridization and analysis of two-dimensional immunoblots showed a difference in the expression levels between the two actin genes in each fungus. No actin protein could be detected from S. commune Scact2. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Scact2 gene also differs considerably from any other known actin protein. These data suggest that the Scact2 gene either has a special as yet unidentified function in S. commune life cycle or is a transcribed but no longer translated pseudogene. Scact2 gene has a putative microORF (short open reading frame) and Scact1 gene an intron in the 5'-untranslated region, which could reduce the translational efficiency and increase the transcriptional efficiency of the Scact2 and Scact1 genes, respectively. During mating in S. commune or at formation of ectomycorrhiza in S. bovinus, the expression of actin genes was similar to that in vegetative hyphae. This result suggests that the reorganization of actin cytoskeleton in response to extra- and intracellular signals in higher filamentous fungi could be directly regulated by members of signalling pathways well characterized in yeast and mammalian cells.[1]


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