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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cestodiasis with intestinal diverticulosis in a lesser flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor).

An adult female lesser flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor), caught in the African Rift Valley in 1991 and subsequently housed at the Baltimore Zoo, died of severe visceral gout in 1996. Necropsy revealed a white, moderately firm, nodular lesion, 1 cm in diameter, in the serosal wall of the small intestine. Although it was initially thought to be a tumor or focal granuloma, histologic examination revealed multiple cestodes deeply embedded at the base of the crypts between the intestinal villi, with their massive scolices (up to 3.4 mm in diameter) distending these spaces into multiple diverticulae. The mucosal epithelium surrounding the scolices was severely attenuated. Around the diverticulae, in the submucosa and muscularis, was a mild to moderate lymphocytic reaction and mild fibrosis. The proximity of multiple scolices and extensive invasion of host tissue suggested that the infection occupied a preexisting lesion. The cestodes were cyclophyllids but were distinct from any species previously reported from flamingos. Helminths should be included in differential diagnoses for gastrointestinal nodules in flamingos.[1]


  1. Cestodiasis with intestinal diverticulosis in a lesser flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor). Poynton, S.L., Mukherjee, G., Strandberg, J.D. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
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