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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The antinociceptive effect of intrathecal administration of epibatidine with clonidine or neostigmine in the formalin test in rats.

The analgesic effect of intrathecal injection of epibatidine, clonidine and neostigmine, compounds that elevate ACh, was examined in the formalin test, a model of post-injury central sensitization in the rat. The compounds were injected alone and in combination. Intrathecal injection of epibatidine alone did not alter pain behaviors, compared to vehicle-treated rats. Intrathecal injection of clonidine dose-dependently reduced tonic pain behaviors (ED(50)+/-95% confidence limits=6.7+/-4.8 microg). The combination of clonidine and epibatidine (C:E), in the ratio of 26:1, dose-dependently reduced tonic pain behaviors; and the ED(50) of C:E was 1.1+/-0.98 microg a significant 6-fold leftward shift of the dose response curve, compared with clonidine alone. The antinociceptive effect of C:E (26:1) was attenuated by pre-treatment with the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine. Neostigmine dose-dependently reduced tonic pain behaviors (ED(50)=1.5+/-1.3 microg). The combination of neostigmine and epibatidine, in a ratio of 8:1, significantly shifted the dose response curve 4-fold to the left (ED(50)=0.4+/-0.3 microg). The effect is mediated in part by the activation of the nAChR and possibly by the enhanced release of ACh. These data demonstrate significant enhancement of the antinociceptive effects of spinally delivered analgesics by a nAChR agonist, suggesting that this class of compounds may have utility as adjuvants when combined with conventional therapeutics.[1]


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