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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Apoptosis induced by doxorubicin and cinchonine in P388 multidrug-resistant cells.

Acquired drug resistance is a major factor in the failure of doxorubicin-based cancer chemotherapy. We determined the ability of cinchonine to reverse doxorubicin drug resistance in a doxorubicin-resistant leukaemia cell line (mouse P388/DOX). A non-cytotoxic concentration of cinchonine (10 microM) increased the sensitivity to doxorubicin of multidrug-resistant P388/DOX cells and significantly enhanced the doxorubicin-induced apoptosis and DNA fragmentation in resistant cells, but had no effect in parent cells. Time-course studies demonstrated that DNA fragmentation was present 24 h after incubation with doxorubicin and cinchonine, indicating that DNA degradation was a preceding event. In cultured cells, cinchonine increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin in the resistant cells in a dose-dependent manner. Using flow cytometry to measure the inhibition of the P-glycoprotein ( P-gp) dependent efflux of rhodamine 123, cinchonine was found to be considerably more effective than quinine. The results with cinchonine suggest that there may be quinine derivatives with a similar capacity to inhibit drug transport by P-gp. Additionally, the G2/M phase cell population in resistant cells is increased by doxorubicin/cinchonine treatment. Exposure of resistant cells to 1 microM doxorubicin and 10 microM cinchonine resulted in the expression of Fas (APO-1/CD95) in cells after 6 h. These studies demonstrate that the cell killing effects of doxorubicin and cinchonine in resistant cells[1]


  1. Apoptosis induced by doxorubicin and cinchonine in P388 multidrug-resistant cells. Furusawa, S., Nakano, S., Wu, J., Sakaguchi, S., Takayanagi, M., Sasaki, K.I., Satoh, S. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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