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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Minimization of MC1R selectivity by modification of the core structure of alpha-MSH-ND.

BACKGROUND: Melanocortin, through its distinct receptor subtypes, has many different effects. Receptor-selective ligands are required to reduce the undesirable effects of melanocortin. To investigate which conformation is preferable to a given melanocortin receptor subtype, a structural and functional analysis of the ligand-receptor interactions was made by studying the biological activity, the nuclear magnetic resonance structures, and the patterns of the ligand-receptor interaction for each receptor subtype by homology modeling analysis. RESULTS: Among the several analogues examined, [Gln(6)]alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)-ND was found to have 10000 times less biological activity than alpha-MSH-ND for the MC1R, whereas, the potencies of both oligopeptides were comparable in both the melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) and MC4R. [Gln(6)]alpha-MSH-ND exhibited a type I' beta-turn that was similar to the type I beta-turn structure of alpha-MSH-ND. However, a remarkable structural difference was observed with respect to the side chain orientations of the sixth and seventh residues of [Gln(6)]alpha-MSH-ND, which were found to be mirror images of alpha-MSH-ND. By homology modeling analysis, the His(6) of alpha-MSH-ND was found to interact with the TM2 regions of all three receptors (Glu(94) of MC1R, Glu(94) of MC3R, and Glu(100) of MC4R), but [Gln(6)]alpha-MSH-ND did not. The phenyl ring of the D-Phe(7) residue of [Gln(6)]alpha-MSH-ND revealed an interaction with the TM3 regions of both the MC3R and MC4R (Ser(122) of MC3R or Ser(127) of MC4R). However, in the MC1R, these serine residues corresponded to Val(122), which contains two methyl groups that induce steric hindrance with D-Phe(7) of [Gln(6)]alpha-MSH-ND. This is a possible explanation for the biological activity of [Gln(6)]alpha-MSH-ND for the MC1R being significantly lower than that for either the MC3R or MC4R. CONCLUSIONS: Minimization of the MC1R selectivity whilst preserving its comparable potency for both the MC3R and MC4R could be achieved by modifying the D-Phe(7) orientation of alpha-MSH-ND, while maintaining the 'type I beta-turn'-like structure.[1]

References

  1. Minimization of MC1R selectivity by modification of the core structure of alpha-MSH-ND. Lim, S., Li, S., Lee, C., Yoon, C., Baik, J., Lee, W. Chem. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
 
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