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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The apoprotein is the preferential target for peroxynitrite-induced LDL damage protection by dietary phenolic acids.

Peroxynitrite has been shown to modify low-density lipoproteins (LDL) into a form recognized by the macrophage scavenger receptor, suggesting that it may play a significant role in atherogenesis. Considering that the mechanisms underlying LDL modifications by this agent have not been well elucidated, the aim of this study was to characterize the chemical modifications of either the lipid or the protein moieties mediated by synthesized peroxynitrite (preformed) or formed in situ by SIN-1, and evaluate the protective effects of some dietary phenolic acids. Preformed peroxynitrite does not induce LDL lipid peroxidation, as assessed either by formation of conjugated diene isomers or degradation of fatty acids and cholesteryl esters, although a rapid loss of alpha-tocopherol content occurs. Also, peroxynitrite formed in situ induces only a slight lipid oxidation. In contrast, under conditions where the LDL lipid moiety is not significantly oxidized, peroxynitrite either preformed or formed in situ rapidly elicit significant LDL apoprotein modifications, as evaluated by an increase in carbonyl groups formation and by great decrease in intrinsic tryptophan and thiol groups, in a concentration-dependent manner, that are accompanied by an increase in the LDL net negative charge, leading to an increase in electrophoretic mobility. Phenolic acids, namely caffeic, chlorogenic and ferulic, inhibit all these processes in a concentration dependent way, being the catechols the most efficient. UV spectral analysis of phenols upon interaction with peroxynitrite suggest that, in our assay conditions, such protection is related with the scavenging of this agent by either electron donation for the catechols, caffeic and chlorogenic acids, or nitration for the monophenol ferulic acid. Our data point that in contrast with other physiological oxidants, as ferrylmyoglobin or copper, peroxynitrite triggers the rapid damage to LDL primarily by protein and not lipid oxidation, and that such process is inhibited by dietary phenolic derivatives of cinnamic acids.[1]


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