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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cyr61 and CTGF are molecular markers of bladder wall remodeling after outlet obstruction.

Cysteine-rich protein ( Cyr61) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) are key immediate early growth factors with functions in cell proliferation, differentiation, and extracellular matrix synthesis. Studies were performed to assess the gene expression profile of Cyr61 and CTGF in rat urinary bladder during growth in response to partial outlet obstruction. The mRNA levels of Cyr61 as determined by ribonuclease protection assay increased sharply after 1 day and remained elevated throughout the time period of the obstruction. This correlates well with increased bladder weight. The CTGF mRNA levels seemed to peak within the second week of the urethral obstruction and correlate well with increased type I collagen mRNA. The expression pattern of either Cyr61 or CTGF proteins corroborated that of their respective mRNAs. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that immunoreactivity of Cyr61 was confined to detrusor smooth muscle and that of CTGF was detected within both detrusor muscle and lamina propria layers. These data strongly indicate the involvement of Cyr61 and CTGF in bladder wall remodeling as a result of the outlet obstruction.[1]


  1. Cyr61 and CTGF are molecular markers of bladder wall remodeling after outlet obstruction. Chaqour, B., Whitbeck, C., Han, J.S., Macarak, E., Horan, P., Chichester, P., Levin, R. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
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