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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pyrethroids used indoors--biological monitoring of exposure to pyrethroids following an indoor pest control operation.

A prospective epidemiological study with respect to pyrethroid exposure was carried out combining clinical examination, indoor monitoring and biological monitoring. The results of the biological monitoring are presented. Biological monitoring was performed in 57 persons before (T1) as well as 1 day ( T2), 3 days ( T3), 4-6 months (T4), and 10-12 months (T5) following a pest control operation (PCO) with pyrethroid containing products such as cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin or permethrin. Pyrethroids in blood were measured by GC- ECD. The respective metabolities cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (DCCA), cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (DBCA), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and fluorophenoxybenzoic acid (FPBA) were measured in urine using GC/MS. For all cases the concentrations of pyrethroids in blood were found to be below the detection limit of 5 micrograms/l before and after the PCO. With a detection limit of 0.2 microgram/l of the investigated metabolites, the percentage of positive samples were 7% for cis-DCCA, 3.5% for trans-DCCA and 5.3% for 3-PBA before PCO. One day after PCO ( T2) the percentage of positive samples increased remarkably for cis-DCCA (21.5%), trans-DCCA (32.1%) and 3-PBA (25%) showing significantly increased internal doses as compared to pre-existing values. This holds also true for T3, whereas at T4 and T5 the significant increase was no more present. FPBA and DBCA concentrations were below the respective detection limit before PCO and also in most cases after PCO. In 72% of the subjects the route of pyrethroid uptake (measured by determining the DCCA isomeric ratio) was oral/inhalative and in 28% it was dermal. Based on the biological monitoring data it could be shown that appropriately performed pest control operations lead to a significant increase of pyrethroid metabolite concentration in the early phase (1 and 3 days) after pyrethroid application as compared to the pre-exposure values. However, evaluated metabolite concentrations 4-6 months after PCO did not exceed values of published background levels.[1]


  1. Pyrethroids used indoors--biological monitoring of exposure to pyrethroids following an indoor pest control operation. Leng, G., Ranft, U., Sugiri, D., Hadnagy, W., Berger-Preiss, E., Idel, H. International journal of hygiene and environmental health. (2003) [Pubmed]
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