The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Posttraumatic stress disorder among Hispanic and African-American drug users.

CONTEXT: Treating high-risk substance abusers who are members of minority groups may require varied protocols depending on differences among minority groups. OBJECTIVES: To explore cocaine abuse (CA)/ dependence with physiological dependence (CDPD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis differences between out-of-treatment Hispanic and African American adults, in order to identify cultural differences in how experiences and attitudes affect cocaine use behaviors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study uses data collected between February and November 2000, as part of a three-year longitudinal study. A cohort of 347 out-of-treatment, Hispanic and African American cocaine-using adults from the Houston metropolitan area were interviewed to measure differences between cocaine users who are dually diagnosed and those that are not. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. criteria for dual diagnoses of CA/PTSD or CDPD/PTSD. RESULTS: For the dual diagnoses categories, 102 (29%) participants met the requirements for CA/PTSD or CDPD/PTSD. Logistic regression models were used, with CA/PTSD and CDPD/PTSD as the dependent variables. Age, race, gender, and income were used as the independent variables. Results indicate that individuals with higher income have a greater probability of developing CA/PTSD (beta = 0.919, p < 0.05). For both dual diagnoses categories of CA/PTSD and CDPD/ PTSD, results indicate that being female increases the likelihood of developing both of these dual diagnoses, (beta = 2.106, p < 0.05) or (beta = 2.510, p < 0.05). However, being an older female decreases the probability that an individual would develop these dual diagnoses (beta = -2.227, p < 0.05) (beta = -2.577, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: No differences were found for race/ethnicity among the dually diagnosed Hispanics and African Americans, however, gender differences were found. Being female increases an individual's probability of developing a dual diagnosis of CA/PTSD or CDPD/PTSD. In addition to being female, being a young female further increases an individual's probability of being dually diagnosed.[1]


  1. Posttraumatic stress disorder among Hispanic and African-American drug users. Montoya, I.D., Covarrubias, L.D., Patek, J.A., Graves, J.A. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse. (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities