The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Heterogeneity and potentiation of AMPA type of glutamate receptors in rat cultured microglia.

alpha-amino-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor in rat cultured microglia were analyzed precisely using flop- and flip-preferring allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors, 4-[2-(phenylsulfonylamino)ethylthio]-2,6-difluoro-phenoxyacetamide (PEPA) and cyclothiazide (CTZ), respectively. Glutamate (Glu)- or kainite (KA)-induced currents were completely inhibited by a specific blocker of AMPA receptor, LY300164, indicating that functional Glu-receptors in cultured microglia are mostly AMPA receptor but not KA receptor in many cells. Glu- and KA-induced currents were potentiated by PEPA and CTZ in a concentration-dependent manner. The ratio of the potentiation by PEPA to the potentiation by cyclothiazide varied with cells between 0.1 and 0.9, suggesting cell-to-cell heterogeneity of AMPA receptor subunits expressed in microglia. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that GluR1-3 mainly occurred in the flip forms, which agreed with the stronger potentiation of receptor currents by CTZ vs. PEPA. Finally, the potentiation of microglial AMPA receptors by PEPA and CTZ inhibited the Glu-induced release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) unpredictably. The increase in TNF-alpha release by Glu or KA required extracellular Na+ and Ca2+ ions but not mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK), suggesting the effects of PEPA and CTZ were not due to the inhibition of MAPK. These results suggest that potentiation of microglial AMPA receptors serves as a negative feedback mechanism for the regulation of TNF-alpha release and may contribute to the ameliorating effects of allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors.[1]


  1. Heterogeneity and potentiation of AMPA type of glutamate receptors in rat cultured microglia. Hagino, Y., Kariura, Y., Manago, Y., Amano, T., Wang, B., Sekiguchi, M., Nishikawa, K., Aoki, S., Wada, K., Noda, M. Glia (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities