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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Thermal properties of a methyl methacrylate-based orthodontic bonding adhesive.

Methyl methacrylate-based (MMA-based) bonding resins have been used in orthodontics because they offer easy removal of both the bonded bracket and the residual adhesive at case completion. However, these materials are not cross-linked, and the brackets bonded with this type of product may undergo drifting when subjected to temperatures slightly higher than those in the mouth. This research investigated the influence of heat on the debonding characteristics of a MMA-based bonding resin compared with those of a BIS-GMA-based system. The temperature of initial bracket movement, as well as of final bracket displacement, was noted for a variety of applied loads (141, 226, 425, 934, and 1727 gm) with stainless steel brackets bonded to etched bovine enamel. The results showed that the MMA-based material underwent a glass transition near 47 degrees C in which the initiation of bracket drift resulted on the tooth surface. This temperature proved independent of the applied load. Further heating resulted in the release of heat from the resin as a result of further curing. The extent of bracket drift associated with this secondary heat release was dependent on the applied load. The debonding temperature of the BIS-GMA-based system was three to six times greater than that of the MMA-based product. Practitioners should be aware that brackets bonded with MMA-based resins have the potential for drifting when subjected to temperatures within the normal range of hot fluids consumed by their patients. Bracket drift could result in deactivation of orthodontic force and could prolong the treatment time.[1]


  1. Thermal properties of a methyl methacrylate-based orthodontic bonding adhesive. Rueggeberg, F.A., Maher, F.T., Kelly, M.T. American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics. (1992) [Pubmed]
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