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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Increased hepatic levels of the insulin receptor inhibitor, PC-1/NPP1, induce insulin resistance and glucose intolerance.

The ectoenzyme, plasma cell membrane glycoprotein-1 (PC-1), is an insulin receptor ( IR) inhibitor that is elevated in cells and tissues of insulin-resistant humans. However, the effects of PC-1 overexpression on insulin action have not been studied in animal models. To produce mice with overexpression of PC-1 in liver, a key glucose regulatory organ in this species, we injected them with a PC-1 adenovirus vector that expresses human PC-1. Compared with controls, these mice had two- to threefold elevations of PC-1 content in liver but no changes in other tissues such as skeletal muscle. In liver of PC-1 animals, insulin-stimulated IR tyrosine kinase and Akt/ protein kinase B activation were both decreased. In this tissue, the IR-dependent nuclear factor Foxo1 was increased along with two key gluconeogenic enzymes, glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The PC-1 animals had 30-40 mg/dl higher glucose levels and twofold higher insulin levels. During glucose tolerance tests, these animals had peak glucose levels that were >100 mg/dl higher than those of controls. These in vivo data support the concept, therefore, that PC-1 plays a role in insulin resistance and suggest that animals with overexpression of human PC-1 in liver may be interesting models to investigate this pathological process.[1]


  1. Increased hepatic levels of the insulin receptor inhibitor, PC-1/NPP1, induce insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Dong, H., Maddux, B.A., Altomonte, J., Meseck, M., Accili, D., Terkeltaub, R., Johnson, K., Youngren, J.F., Goldfine, I.D. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
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