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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mitogen regulated induction of FRA-1 proto-oncogene is controlled by the transcription factors binding to both serum and TPA response elements.

FRA-1, a member of the FOS family of transcription factors, is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, and contributes to tumor progression. In addition to mitogens, various toxicants and carcinogens persistently induce FRA-1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Although the mitogen induced expression of c-FOS is relatively well understood, it is poorly defined in the case of FRA-1. Our recent analysis of the FRA-1 promoter has shown a critical role for a TRE located at -318 in mediating the TPA-induced expression. The -379 to -283 bp promoter segment containing a critical TRE (-318), however, is insufficient for the induction of FRA-1 promoter. Here, we show that a 40-bp (-276/-237) segment, comprising a TCF binding site and the CArG box (collectively known as serum response element, SRE), and an ATF site, is also necessary for the FRA-1 induction by TPA and EGF. Interestingly, the -283 to +32 bp FRA-1 promoter fragment containing an SRE and an ATF site alone was also insufficient to confer TPA sensitivity to a reporter gene. However, in association with the -318 TRE, the SRE and ATF sites imparted a strong TPA-inducibility to the reporter. Similarly, EGF also required these motifs for the full induction of this gene. Using ChIP assays we show that, in contrast to c-Jun, SRF, Elk1, ATF1 and CREB proteins bind to SRE and ATF sites of the FRA-1 promoter, constitutively. RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous SRF, ELK1 and c-JUN protein expression significantly reduced TPA- stimulated FRA-1 promoter activity. Thus, a bipartite enhancer formed by an upstream TRE and the downstream SRE and ATF sites and the cognate factors is necessary and sufficient for the regulation of FRA-1 in response to mitogens.[1]


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