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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 

The adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene regulates expression of cyclooxygenase-2 by a mechanism that involves retinoic acid.

Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene result in uncontrolled proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and are associated with the earliest stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. Cyclooxygenase-2 ( COX-2) is elevated in human colorectal cancers and plays an important role in colorectal tumorigenesis; however, the mechanisms by which APC mutations result in increased COX-2 expression remain unclear. We utilized APC mutant zebrafish and human cancer cells to investigate how APC modulates COX-2 expression. We report that COX-2 is up-regulated in APC mutant zebrafish because of a deficiency in retinoic acid biosynthesis. Treatment of both APC mutant zebrafish and human carcinoma cell lines with retinoic acid significantly reduces COX-2 expression. Retinoic acid regulates COX-2 levels by a mechanism that involves participation of the transcription factor C/ EBP-beta. APC mutant zebrafish express higher levels of C/ EBP-beta than wild-type animals, and retinoic acid supplementation reduces C/ EBP-beta expression to basal levels. Both morpholino knockdown of C/ EBP-beta in APC mutant zebrafish and silencing of C/ EBP-beta using small interfering RNA in HT29 colon cancer cells robustly decrease COX-2 expression. Our findings support a sequence of events in which mutations in APC result in impaired retinoic acid biosynthesis, elevated levels of C/ EBP-beta, up-regulation of COX-2, increased prostaglandin E(2) accumulation, and activation of Wnt target genes.[1]

References

  1. The adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene regulates expression of cyclooxygenase-2 by a mechanism that involves retinoic acid. Eisinger, A.L., Nadauld, L.D., Shelton, D.N., Peterson, P.W., Phelps, R.A., Chidester, S., Stafforini, D.M., Prescott, S.M., Jones, D.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
 
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