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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Prolonged alterations in canine striatal dopamine metabolism following subtoxic doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 4'-amino-MPTP are linked to the persistence of pyridinium metabolites.

Single toxic doses of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP).HCl (2.5 mg/kg i.v.) and 4'-amino-MPTP.2HCl (22.5 mg/kg) induce loss of striatal dopamine (DA) and tyrosine hydroxylase ( TH) activity and of nigral DA neurons in the dog. To examine the subacute neurochemical changes induced by low doses of MPTP and 4'-amino-MPTP, dose-response studies of these compounds were carried out in the dog, using 6- and 3-week survival times for these two compounds, respectively. Low single doses of MPTP (1.0, 0.5, and 0.1 mg/kg i.v.) and 4'-amino-MPTP (15, 7.5, and 3.75 mg/kg i.v.) did not cause depletion of canine striatal DA or TH or a loss of nigral neurons. However, levels of the DA metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were decreased in a dose-related fashion, with significant loss of DOPAC being evident 6 weeks after the lowest administered dose of MPTP and 3 weeks after 4'-amino-MPTP. This selective loss of DA metabolites following nontoxic doses of MPTP and 4'-amino-MPTP led to a shift in the ratio of DA to DOPAC or HVA, which was characteristic for each compound. The measurement of striatal 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and 4'-amino-MPP+ levels revealed that high concentrations (up to 150 microM) persist in the striatum for weeks following administration of a single nontoxic dose of MPTP or 4'-amino-MPTP. A causal relationship between the striatal concentration of MPP+ or 4'-amino-MPP+ and the change in DA metabolism as reflected in the DA/DOPAC ratio is suggested by a significant correlation between these measures. It is suggested that presynaptic sequestration and retention of MPP+ and 4'-amino-MPP+ by striatal DA terminals result in the inhibition of the monoamine oxidase contained within these terminals.[1]


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