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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cross-linking of estrogen receptor to chromatin in intact MCF-7 human breast cancer cells: optimization and effect of ligand.

To investigate the effect of ligand (be it hormone, antihormone, or no hormone) on the interaction between estrogen receptor ( ER) and chromatin, we have used formaldehyde as a cross-linking agent in intact MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. After a 1- to 2-h hormone treatment, the cells are exposed for 8 min to formaldehyde, which is added directly to their culture medium to minimize environmental perturbation. Nuclei are prepared from formaldehyde-treated cells and their contents are fractionated on CsCl density gradients to separate DNA-protein complexes from free protein. Peak gradient fractions are assayed for the presence of specific proteins by immunoblot of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel patterns. Using this approach, we find that 0.15% formaldehyde is optimal for cross-linking ER to chromatin. We detect ER and the large subunit of RNA polymerase II with DNA from formaldehyde-treated, but not from untreated cells. On the other hand, actin (a cytoplasmic protein) and small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle proteins (nuclear RNA binding proteins) are not cross-linked to DNA. Therefore, cross-linking appears to be selective and fractionation is efficient. Interestingly, we detect similar levels of ER (as well as RNA polymerase II) with DNA from formaldehyde-treated cells, regardless of whether the cells are preexposed to estrogen (17 beta-estradiol at 10(-8) M), antiestrogen (ICI 164,384 at 10(-7) or 10(-6) M), or no hormone. These results, using covalent cross-linking in intact cells, indicate that both ligand-occupied and unoccupied ER are associated with chromatin.[1]


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