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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

In vivo estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of phenolphthalein and derivative compounds.

The estrogenic activity of phenolphthalein and other related triphenylmethane dyes was evaluated in vivo in the immature rat uterus. Phenolphthalein behaved as a partial agonist of estradiol in stimulating the growth of rat uterus. Other specific estrogenic effects of the dye included an increase of the uterine DNA content, histological changes and induction of estrogen-modulated secretory proteins. The progressive introduction of side chains in the triphenylmethane skeleton concomitantly decreased the estrogenic activity. Triphenylmethanes competed with [3H]estradiol for the binding to the estrogen receptor in vitro, the relative binding affinity being correlated with the estrogenic potency observed in vivo. Phenolphthalein also showed antiestrogenic activity that could be overcome by increasing the dose of estradiol.[1]


  1. In vivo estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of phenolphthalein and derivative compounds. Nieto, A., García, C., López de Haro, M.S. Biochem. Int. (1990) [Pubmed]
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