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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Ceftizoxime. A review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use.

Ceftizoxime is a 'third generation' cephalosporin administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Like other third generation cephalosporins it has a wide spectrum of in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, is particularly active against Enterobacteriaceae (including beta-lactamase-positive strains), and is resistant to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases. However, the third generation cephalosporins are less active than earlier cephalosporins against staphylococci and so could not be considered the drugs of choice. Like many currently available third generation cephalosporins, ceftizoxime has limited activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and thus cannot be recommended as sole treatment of known or suspected non-urinary tract pseudomonal infections. Similarly, although favourable clinical results have been obtained in patients treated with ceftizoxime for infections caused by mixed aerobic/anaerobic organisms (such as intra-abdominal, and obstetric and gynaecological infections), the relatively low in vitro activity of ceftizoxime (in common with most other third generation cephalosporins) against Bacteroides fragilis and enterococci may restrict its usage in situations where these organisms are the suspected or proven pathogens. Ceftizoxime appears to be similar in efficacy to several other cephalosporins in lower respiratory tract infections in elderly and/or debilitated patients, and in chronic and/or complicated urinary tract infections, 2 clinical situations in which third generation cephalosporins may have a major role. Ceftizoxime is also effective clinically and bacteriologically in skin, soft tissue, bone and joint infections, septicaemia/bacteraemia, meningitis and neonatal infections. However, a few large, well designed clinical comparisons of efficacy with aminoglycosides are needed before ceftizoxime can be recommended as an alternative in patients in whom potential aminoglycoside toxicity is a concern. Single intramuscular doses of ceftizoxime appear similar in efficacy to aqueous procaine penicillin G in gonorrhoeae due to nonpenicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoea, and ceftizoxime is also highly effective against penicillinase-producing strains. Although only a few infections have been treated to date, ceftizoxime may be useful in the treatment of gonorrhoea in places where penicillinase-producing strains are common. Thus, ceftizoxime appears to be an effective addition to the growing number of third generation cephalosporins. However, further studies are needed to confirm its relative efficacy compared with other new cephalosporins, in particular cefotaxime.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[1]


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