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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A field evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis as a biological control agent for Simulium chutteri (Diptera:Nematocera) in the middle Orange River.

Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. israelensis de Barjac (Serotype H-14) (B.t.i.) at a concentration of 1.6 ppm/10 min and a toxicity of 1500 AAU/mg was tested against Simulium chutteri Lewis larvae in the Orange River near Prieska, South Africa. Samples of benthic fauna from the stones-in-current biotope were collected before application of the product and at various intervals up to 80 h afterwards at 4 stations from 200 m to 11 km downstream of the application site. Fauna drift increased slightly after the arrival of the Bacillus at 2 stations 1.4 and 6 km respectively downstream of the application site. Large numerical decreases in benthic simuliid larval numbers after the application of B.t.i. in the Orange River were not statistically different (P greater than 0.05). This indicated that the size of replicated samples that showed significant decreases (P less than 0.05) of simuliid numbers in the Vaal River was not adequate to show statistical differences in the Orange River. The quantity of dead larvae on stones collected from rapids after application of the B.t.i., and the numerical decreases found by comparing median values of larval counts on stones indicated that B.t.i. effectively killed simuliid larvae. Three days after application of the Bacillus, recruitment of small simuliid larvae on stones 1.4 km downstream of the application site was discernible again. Tanytarsini were also numerically reduced after B.t.i. application. At a flow rate of 38 m3/s B.t.i. was visibly effective in killing S. chutteri up to 6 km downstream of the application site and statistically significant decreases (P less than 0.05) in numbers of larvae were seen at a site 11 km downstream of the application site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[1]


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