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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cells adherent to IUDs produce tumor necrosis factor alpha.

The nature of adherent cells obtained from the surface of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUD) was investigated by immunofluorescence using antibodies directed against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), leukocyte differentiation antigens, immunoglobulin isotypes and J chain. Macrophages/monocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils were found in all fifty samples. Macrophages were characterized by CD14, CD15 and CD71 positivity, DAKO macrophage antibody and HLA-DR, CD11c and CD45 expression. B cells contained secretory IgA with J chain or IgG and some cells expressed surface IgM. Neither IgD nor IgE were found. T-antigens CD3, CD4 and CD5 were not detected, the CD8 was faintly expressed. The CD56 molecule identifying NK cells was found on small lymphocytes. Cytoplasmic C3 protein was detected in neutrophils. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) was visualized in 14.3 +/- 8.8% of nucleated IUD cells. This cytokine was localized in the cytoplasm of the macrophages and the lymphocytes.[1]


  1. Cells adherent to IUDs produce tumor necrosis factor alpha. Trebichavský, I., Nyklícek, O. Contraception. (1993) [Pubmed]
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